Geahčastagat, olggušteapmi ja albma duoji gáibádus – duodjekontrolla duojáriid vásáhussan
Sigga-Marja Magga (Oulu universitehta)
Viečča artihkkala dás (pdf).
Gieđahalan duoji sosiála kontrolla duojáriid vásáhussan. Duoji sosiála kontrolla lea sámi servodaga vuohki buvttadit ja doalahit duodjenorpmaid – servodaga oktasaš oainnuid duodjeárbevierus. Geahčastagaiguin kontrollerejit duojára sosiála ja kultuvrralaš dáidduid, mat dutkamušas gullet oktii duddjondáidduiguin. Olggušteapmi fas sirre duojára dahje su dujiid normatiiva duodjeáddejumi olggobeallái. Albma duoji norbma meroštallá makkár duodji galgá leat. Dákkár dáhpáhusain duojár galgá juoga ládje čilget ja legitimeret iežas kultuvrralaš máhtuid. Duojárat huksejit kontrolla ektui vuostefámu mii lea ealli sámi kultuvrra eaktu. Duoji sosiála kontrolla addá maid duojáriidda signálaid das ahte sii gullet sámeservodahkii vaikko orošedje sámi guovllu olggobealde.
Fáddásánit: sosiála kontrolla, duodji, norbma, geahčastat, olggušteapmi
The gaze, shunning and demand of proper duodji – the control of duodji as experienced by Saami craft workers
This article explores the ways in which Saami craft workers experience the control of duodji (Saami crafts) and what this control means to the Saami community. The term duodji refers to clothes, different kinds of utensils, jewelry, etc. and is a very old tradition among the Saami. Duodji includes a great deal of norms and rules that the Saami communities maintain and control. Craft workers learn to pay heed to this control. The research material in this article is based on three seminar speeches held in 2009 on Saami National Day.
The focus of this article is on the ways in which the Saami control the norms of duodji. One of these is geahčastat, the gaze, which the craft worker feels on their cheeks or back. Craftsmanship is a highly distinguished skill, especially among Saami women. This silent look controls (especially female) craft workers’ Saami cultural and social skills. It contributes to how well the artisan is able to fulfill both practical and communicative needs of the Saami community.
The other way of controlling duodji norms is olggušteapmi, shunning. Shunning can manifest itself in the renaming of duodji with a name that categorizes it outside the traditional duodji. Terminology in Saami relating to duodji is very rich, revolving around the materials but also the processes of the developing duodji. Shunning is rather a harsh form of control, as it has the power of making the craft worker subjected to shunning feel otherness in relation to their society. However,
the control of duodji is not only a negative experience. It can be an indicator of belonging to the Saami community. As long as craft workers experience some kind of control by their fellow Saami, it reasserts their sense of belonging to the Saami community.
Keywords: social control, duodji, norm, gaze, shunning