All our study sites are located in the European environmental zone called the Alpine North  (Figure 1). In 2014 the Arctic Norway (Varanger) will be used to develop PPGIS and integrated ecosystem services modeling financed by TUNDRA/TundrEs. In another research project, Linkage, we evaluate the use of landscape analyses in Reisa and Lyngen. In CultEs we select two more alpine areas with a cluster of parks that represent differences in management regimes in Norway: 1. Midtre Nordland which is characterized by state property, reindeer herding and representation of the Sami Council in the park boards. 2. A cluster of parks in Nasjonalparkriket (Jotunheimen, Breheimen and Reinheimen, Jostedalsbreen + LVOs), which include state commons and Parish Commons.
- Metzger, M.J., et al., The vulnerability of ecosystem services to land use change. AGRICULTURE ECOSYSTEMS & ENVIRONMENT, 2006. 114(1): p. 69-85.