The changing livelihood of the Karamojong People of North-Eastern Uganda and its impact on the survival of their traditional gender roles

Abstract
This thesis discuss the changing livelihoods of the Karamojong people of North-Eastern Uganda and how the changes impacts the survival of their traditional gender roles. For various reasons Karimajong people have been historically marginalized and subjugated which treatment is evident since the rule of colonialists and even extended to the post –independence governments of the Republic of Uganda. In their attempt to express their identity as cattle herders, Karamajong people have faced the unfavourable consequences of the government’s development programs since nomadic pastoralism was seen as a back ward mode of cattle husbandry which is not economically viable but rather environmentally destructive. It should be noted that Karamoja sub region is a semi-arid area where people have suffered the worst consequences of drought in Uganda due to global climate change. Additionally the activity of cattle raiding branded the people of karamaja tittle of warrior who were seen as security threat to the nation. This resulted into neglecting of this area, denial of economic benefits and infrastructure that marked the genesis of discrimination and marginalization of the people of karamoja as some parts of Uganda perceived that the people of karamoja are undeveloped since they never embraced western modernity as early as it was in other parts of the country. However regardless of their marginalized position, Karamojong people continued to live a way of live that was inherited from their ancestors given the fact that the place was made a no gone zone for other people of the country. The society was organized and activities were shared according to gender and age. I will show the different roles that were traditionally performed by people of different gender and Age. Here I examine if the Karamojong people fit to be indigenous as invoked by international law or even as perceived by the African understanding of indigeneity. In the year 2006, the government of Uganda embarked on the implementation of affirmative action to the historically marginalized and discriminated societies. Karamoja became one of the targets of this movement. In her attempt to implement development projects in the region, the government of Uganda ensured that the previously closed boundaries of karamoja sub region were to be opened to the rest of the citizens and to the foreign agencies. This called for pacifying and transforming the region through disarming the warriors, encouraging sedentarized agriculture as an alternative to pastoralism, introducing formal education and other undertakings as I will elaborate in this thesis. However studies show that such changes have greatly impacted on the traditional way of life of the people of Karamoja. Therefore this study tries to analyse if these changes in livelihood will make Karamojong people more marginalized and vulnerable society or resilient and progressive community, able to cope up with the life of other dominant communities. The information included herein is informed by current and historical literature, as well as the author’s field research conducted in Moroto district North-eastern Uganda Karamoja sub-region.
Thesis in Munin

God Speaks Skolt Sámi as Well: Finnish Orthodox Church as a domain of Language Use among the Skolt Sámi in Sevettijärvi

Abstract
This study describes how the Finnish Orthodox Church in Sevettijärvi functions as a domain of language use and furthermore analyses what role the Church has had in the process of the Skolt Sámi language revitalization. Many researchers have expressed the importance of the Orthodox Church in everyday life of Skolt Sámi, however none have focused on the Church in the Skolt Sámi context from a sociolinguistic point of view. This study builds on the theoretical concept of domains of language use developed by Joshua Fishman and examines the Finnish Orthodox Church in Sevettijärvi as a domain of language use. This thesis shows what factors influence the language choice in this domain, how the domain has developed, and how it has influenced the Skolt Sámi language outside this domain. Empirically, my study is based on ten semi-structured interviews and participant observation. I present my data divided into four main parts: religious literature, religious services, religious education, and other communication in the domain of the Orthodox Church (communication between the church and the members through media, between the clergy and parishioners, among parishioners and individual communication with the divine). In this thesis, I argue that the Orthodox Church has supported the Skolt Sámi language and its revitalization. At the same time, I show what hinders the further development of the Skolt Sámi language in this domain and what measures might be taken in order to strengthen the position of the Skolt Sámi language in the future.
Thesis in Munin

Behind the scenes of street begging: Karamojong women of Northern Eastern Uganda

Abstract
When one walks through the various streets of Kampala, the capital city of Uganda, one encounters a diversity of beggars. Among them, are Karamojong women and children stationed at different places, and pleading with by-passers to offer them something. Scenes of Karamojong mothers breast feeding their babies while begging, and always set to run into hiding when they sight city authorities, are common on most busy streets of Kampala. This study investigated why Karamojong women engage in street begging, the challenges they encounter, how they cope, and the role men play. The study based on data gathered through qualitative ethnographic fieldwork in Kampala Uganda using interviews, observation, narratives and archival records. The violence and oppression that Karamojong women face daily during street begging requires an intersectional approach to obtain a better grasp of the situation. Through the fusion of Indigenous Feminism and Intersectionality, this study presents an analysis that takes into account the dynamics of race, ethnicity, class, gender and other dimensions of social inequality and difference that force Karamojong women into street begging. The findings show that the hassle of the city is tough, and only the fit survive. Karamojong women are determined and maneuver their way around the city even though they face many challenges as they go about begging. Their lives are entangled with historical effects of colonization, patriarchy, racism and sexism; which manifest through stigmatization, exploitation, prejudices and derogatory references both within and outside their society; all of which bolster subordination and vulnerability. Faced with such challenges, Karamojong women are strong, resilient people who do not concede to their plight, neither do they easily join the band wagon of the township. They still embrace their cultural values, identity, the right to be different and strive against all odds to fulfill their roles and responsibilities.
Thesis Munin

Resistance and change: A case study of economic changes and its effect on Language, Food habits and dress of the nomadic hunting-gathering Raute of Nepal.

Abstract
Raute, an endangered indigenous group, are the last nomadic hunting-gathering tribe of Nepal who basically traverse through four districts: Dailekh, Salyan, Surkhet and Jajarkot of mid-west Nepal. Hunting monkeys and rhesus, foraging wild plants and fruits, and manufacturing woodenwares to barter for food and non-food items with the sedentary villagers are the primary economic sources of their traditional life. However, the changes that occurred in the socio-cultural practices in surrounding sedentary societies (due to global economic politics) and ecology (due to global warming) have significantly influenced the Raute’s traditional mode of economy for the last few decades in spite of their resistance. This ethnography basically focuses on the changes in the economic structure of Raute despite their meticulous resistive practices applied to avoid the external forces for cultural assimilation and its impacts on traditional language, food habit and dress, thereby maintaining cultural intactness. The changes in Nepalese national political scenario over the last seventy years, mainly after 1990, formation of various national laws including several forest acts and the growing involvement of local villagers for forest resource management have significantly curbed the Raute’s traditional ways of using forest resources these days. Additionally, depletion of resources, which were the sole sources of Raute economy, because of ecological degradation caused by global warming has further cumulated the effects on the Raute’s ancestral economic structure. Although, the hunting-gathering culture of this nomadic tribe has been getting multiple arrows from different angles, the sensible manoeuvres that they have been applying to parry the external blows have remarkably diluted the imposed impacts. This study also highlights how the same resistive strategies on the other hand play a significant role in the Raute’s adaptation to the changing socio-ecological context.
Thesis in Munin

Indigenous Wellbeing in University Spaces: Experiences of Indigenous Students at the Australian National University

Abstract
This thesis aims to address the issue of Indigenous Australian conceptions of wellbeing in the context of university education. It will examine the role of an Indigenous student support unit in providing a space in which Indigenous wellbeing is enacted, supported and strengthened. The findings are based on discussions with six Indigenous students who were enrolled at the Australian National University and used the Tjabal Indigenous Higher Education Centre and one staff member. In this research I discuss how Indigenous students conceptualise and articulate wellbeing in a local university context. I also address institutional arrangements of university spaces in accounting for the differences in Indigenous student wellbeing. Lastly I examine how spaces for Indigenous wellbeing at the university are produced. I argue that students’ conception and articulation of wellbeing is based in a sense of belonging. Students experience challenges to wellbeing in university spaces as they enter racialised spaces. Wellbeing has also been challenged by culturally unsafe practices in some courses. The Tjabal Centre represents a space for Indigenous wellbeing which has been produced through spatial practice, the use of signs and symbols, and through planning. It is a space where Indigenous ontologies and epistemologies can be enacted in the everyday. Students have extended space for wellbeing on campus through the use of tactics and everyday acts of resistance.
Thesis Munin

Journey to the Free World: Sámi and Norwegian Border Pilots during World War II in Nordland County.

Author

Pavall, Simon

Abstract
The Second World War had a great impact on. For Norwegians, the War contributed to create a national identity, based on a shared oppression from a military invasion and resistance. Because of the war, many people fled to Sweden. Most of those refugees needed help from border pilots. In some areas Sámi border pilots was important because they knew the area very well indeed. Some of them were closely related to Sámi families in Sweden This thesis is a study what both Norwegian and Sámi border pilots did, who they were, where they did it and why they did it. It is also about how the public treated Sámi border pilots after the war. It covers the areas from Saltdal in the south to Tysfjord to the north. The thesis is based on interviews, books, articles and articles from local yearbooks in those four areas. In the end, many border pilots helped refugees because they felt it was the right thing to do. It was organised in such a way that a lot of people helped. People helped with food, clothes and shelter. Sometimes refugees came to them asking for help, but most of the times there were people picking up the refugees and then giving the refugees to the border pilots. Turning the refugees away would reduce their chances of fleeing to Sweden and if they did not receive help, they could be caught by German authorities. After the War, the Sámi border pilots were charged with treason, although the case was later dismissed, but because the way they were treated and accused, they became ashamed of what they had done. It was not until 2005, 70 years after the war ended, when the King apologised for the treatment the Sámi border pilots received after the war. It has taken a long time and a lot of effort to try to tell their stories and to fix the injustice that they received.
Thesis in Munin

The New Scope: Forest policy, Indigenous Involvment and Welfare considerations. The case of Kyirayaso in the Ashanti Region of Ghana.

Abstract
This study examines the Forest and Wildlife Policy of Ghana, how it involves the indigenous people of Kyirayaso in the management process of the forest reserve from which they derive their livelihood and how the forest policy takes into consideration the welfare of the people. The objective is to gain insight into the practicalities of managing the reserve based on the stories, views and reflections of the Kyirayaso community who are “used” as a case study. It is also to ascertain the impact of the management process on the welfare of the people. In this regard, the study draws on the mixed method approach, with eight interviews of government and forestry commission officials and 30 open-ended questionnaires of Kyirayaso community members. Selected aspects of co-management theory constitute an analytical framework for highlighting the components of the management process and for reviewing the survival strategies and the overall welfare of the community. The study points out that; Kyirayaso community members are practically involved in co-managing the forest reserve but they are not assured possibilities of influencing decisions. They are involved more at the implementation stage than in prior planning stages and the nature of management process is more “consultative” than “two-way” communication (active participation). The difference in the extent of involvement is attributed to general education levels of community members due to the technicality of forestry issues. I also discovered that welfare has a non-monetary meaning and significance in Kyirayaso. And while revenue that comes to the community does not trickle down to everyone, there is still good-will and a communal spirit among community members to manage and protect the forest reserve for future generations as well as leave a lasting legacy. The study brings to bare results of co-management strategies put to analysis and it is proposed that for effective and sustainable management of the forest and proper welfare provision of the community members who devote their lives to protect the reserve, a bottom-up approach needs to be adopted to refocus policy directions and strategies. Technical education should be implemented, to circumvent the inability of primary stakeholders from partaking in decision-making processes that affect their very existence.
Thesis in Munin

Negotiating an Urban Indigenous Identity: Expectations, prejudices and claims faced by urban Sámi in two contemporary Norwegian cities

Abstract
Indigeneity is often assumed to be a rural condition, but globally, indigenous peoples are now increasingly characterized as urban populations. Research suggests that a large proportion of the Sámi population in Norway reside in urban areas and that new generations of Sámi are growing up in cities; a phenomenon coined as a geographical re-organization of Sápmi. This thesis is an investigation of some of the challenges the urban Sámi face in negotiating and maintaining a Sámi identity in two contemporary Norwegian cities. The concepts of expectations and claims connected to a Sámi identity have functioned as running themes in the thesis and I argue that such expectations and claims come from both the Sámi and the non-Sámi community in regards what it means to be an urban Sámi. One central finding is that prejudices and stereotypes are common experiences to the urban Sámi, and I identify different strategies how to deal with such claims. I argue that the urban Sámi identity thus is something one needs to manage to a greater extent than other identities. Certain cultural traits, activities and skills function as performances of a Sámi identity. The city provides great freedom and allows the construction of an urban Sámi identity to be both creative and diverse, but the notion of an urban Sámi identity is at the same time challenged by predominant discourses of authenticity and stereotypical ideas. By insisting on ambiguity, the urban Sámi is combating the notion of cultural hierarchy.
Thesis in Munin

Educational Status of Santhal Community. A Case Study of a School Dropout in Santhal Children of Eastern Nepal.

Author

Chamalagain, Sitaram

Abstract
The government of Nepal has taken initiatives to increase the enrollment of the students and keep them in school by making tuition fee free up to secondary level, offering various scholarship schemes for girls, marginalized and indigenous children; however, the dropout rate of children in Nepal is still high and, in the case of Santhal children, it is even higher. In this context, the current study seeks to critically explore the reasons for the high dropout rate among Santhal students. This study is the result of a qualitative field research conducted in Gauradaha and Korobari Village Development Committees in Nepal in May and June 2014. This study includes the voices of teachers, parents, dropouts and educationists, which are supplemented by the researcher`s observation notes, government and school data. Drawing on the theories of dropout and social capital, this study aims at finding out how the lack of social capital in school, family and community affects the educational attainment of Santhal children. This information can be used to develop programs designed to increase social capital in schools, families, and communities, which can contribute to a decrease in the dropout behavior. The findings show that students who are unable to develop social capital in the forms of school social capital, family social capital, or community social capital, or a combination of these three forms, have a more difficult time completing school. Using qualitative methods along with the numerical data in the form of tables, the stories of students, teachers, parents and educationist have shown that the lack of or the lower social capital which is persistent in the Santhal community has contributed to the dropout behavior of Santhal children. Key words: Santhal, education, school dropout, social capital, Adibasi/Janajati
Thesis in Munin

Beaivvás- an institution for Sámi cuBeaivvás – an institution for Sámi culture management or mainstream entertainment?: The Sámi National Theater’s role in the Sámi community of Norway

Abstract
After the Sámi awakening movement in the 1970’s which culminated in the Alta conflict in 1981, the Sámi theater Beaivváš was created to highlight the Sámi language and culture in Norway. The theater became a success and was at first one of the main spokesmen for the Sámi people in the political and cultural contexts. As Sámi rights were recognized, Beaivváš and several Sámi institutions were established as a piece in the Sámi nation building process. In the process where Beaivváš went from a free theater group to a fixed item on the state budget, the Western theater form became applicable to the Sámi theater. Beaivváš has faced huge challenges in the management of the institution and has now come to a critical point in the development where the choice seems to be between commercialization of ancient Sámi arts- and cultural expressions or a closing of the Sámi national theater. This thesis’ purpose is to describe and analyze Beaivváš’ past and present role in the Sámi community in Norway and discuss a prospective solution for the theater’s role in the future. To look how other Indigenous peoples solve their culture preserving challenges, I have visited TIPA – the successful Tibetan Institute of Performing Arts in Dharamshala, India. The exile-Tibetans’ strategy for culture management is examined and discussed to determine whether TIPA is a possible model for how to conduct the Sámi culture institution Beaivváš in the future.
Thesis in Munin