The Heritage-bilingual Linguistic Proficiency in their Native Grammar (HeLPiNG) project is a multimillion-euro grant funded by Tromsø Forskningsstiftelse (Tromsø Research Foundation) (2019-2023). Heritage language bilingualism has shown significant degrees of variation in development, but especially ultimate attainment outcomes from monolinguals of the same language and across individual heritage speakers. The primary objective of HeLPiNG is to answer:

Why is Heritage language bilingualism characterized by such variation in grammatical knowledge and language use to degrees unseen in monolinguals?

By addressing these equally fundamental secondary objective questions:

(Aim 1) When and why do developing monolinguals and heritage speakers (HS) begin to diverge for the same language?

(Aim 2) At what levels (under what modalities of testing) do HSs truly differ?

(Aim 3) What is the role of the (lack of) HL literacy in explaining (some) observed HS outcomes?

HeLPiNG will address these queries combining insights from several work packages focusing on complementary questions and using complementary methodologies (cross-sectional and longitudinal offline behavioral testing, EEG/ERP, eye-tracking).