Stage 1

Indirect-direct drivers

Environmental governance

Governance practices will be compared across countries and administrative regions. We will focus on the relationships between civil society, the public sector and the private sector. The comparison will include analyses of environmental law and policies, incentive-based management, decentralization and co-management.

trekant 2

Socio-economic conditions

“The environmental Kuznets Curve” (EKC) hypothesis states that environmental impacts will increase in the early stages of economic development, and then, as the economy matures, society will begin to invest in environmental quality and protection. We critically investigate this assumption by focusing on the concept of human development, which includes factors such as education, health and environmental governance.


Direct drivers

We focus on direct drivers as classified by Salafsky et al., 2008 (Salafsky, N. D. Salzer, A. J. Stattersfield, C. Hilton-Taylor, R. Neugarten, S. H. M. Butchart, B. Collen, N. Cox, L. L. Master, S. O’Connor, and D. Wilkie. 2008. Standard lexicon for biodiversity conservation: Unified classifications of threats and actions. Conservation Biology 22:897-911). This classification includes land use related to protected areas, residential and commercial development, roads, oil and gas exploration, pollution, and resource exploitation, such as reindeer husbandry and hunting.

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