If you are interested in a copy of any of these publications, some of them may be found in UiT’s open access repository Munin or on my profile on ResearchGate. You may also just write me an e-mail.


Jensen, Isabel, Björn Lundquist, Roumyana Slabakova & Marit Westergaard. 2019. The Bottleneck Hypothesis in L2 acquisition: L1 Norwegian learners’ knowledge of syntax and morphology in L2 English. Second Language Research.

Rodina, Yulia & Marit Westergaard. Submitted. Grammatical gender and declension class in language change: A study of the loss of feminine in Norwegian.

Westergaard, Marit. Submitted. Microvariation in Multilingual Situations: The Importance of Property-by-Property Acquisition.

Leivada, Evelina & Marit Westergaard. Revised and resubmitted. Are universal linguistic hierarchies innately wired? Evidence from multiple adjectives.

Leivada, Evelina, Jason Rothman & Marit Westergaard. Submitted. Explaining the phantom-like appearance of bilingual advantageous effects on cognition across tasks and populations.

Westergaard, Marit, Terje Lohndal & Artemis Alexiadou. Submitted. The asymmetric nature of V2.

Miller, David, Jason Rothman, Terje Lohndal & Marit Westergaard. Submitted. ‘New Horizons: Evidence and Epistemology in Modern Generative Second Language Acquisition?’

Wolleb, Anna, Antonella Sorace & Marit Westergaard. In press. ‘Language control and executive control: Can studies on language processing distinguish the two?’ In Irina Sekerina & Lauren Spradlin (eds.), Studies in Bilingualism. 

Westergaard, Marit & Terje Lohndal. Forthcoming/2019. ‘Verb second word order in Norwegian heritage language: Syntax and pragmatics.’ In David Lightfoot & Jon Haven­hill (eds.), Variable properties in language: Their nature and acquisition. Washing­ton, DC: Georgetown University Press.

Lohndal, Terje, Marit Westergaard & Øystein Vangsnes. Forthcoming. ‘Verb Second in Norwegian: Variation and Acquisition.’ In Theresa Biberauer, Rebecca Woods & Sam Wolfe (eds.), Rethinking V2. Oxford University Press.

Castro, Tammer, Jason Rothman & Marit Westergaard. Forthcoming. ‘Syntactic Contrasts in Early and Late Brazilian Portuguese-European Portuguese Bidialectal Bilinguals: Data from Production.’ In K. Molsing, C. Lopes Perna & A. Ibaños (eds.), Linguistic Approaches to Portuguese as an Additional Language. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Westergaard, Marit & Tanja Kupisch. Submitted. ‘Stable and vulnerable domains in Germanic Heritage Languages.’ Blackwell Handbook of Germanic Languages.

Olga Urek, Marit Westergaard & Agrita Taurina. Under revision. ‘Acquisition of adjectival gender agreement in monolinguals and bilinguals: evidence from Latvian and Russian.’ Available here.

Kupisch, Tanja, Martin Krämer, Tammer Castro & Marit Westergaard. Under revision. Phonological Cross-linguistic Influence in Brazilian Portuguese/European Portuguese Bilectals. Second Language Research.

Anderssen, Merete & Marit Westergaard. Forthcoming. ‘Word Order Variation in Heritage Language: Subject Shift and Object Shift in Norwegian.’ Lost in Transmission [Studies in Bilingualism]. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Busterud, Guro, Terje Lohndal, Yulia Rodina & Marit Westergaard. Forthcoming/2019. ‘The loss of feminine gender in Norwegian: A dialect comparison.’ Journal of Comparative Germanic Linguistics.

Westergaard, Marit. In press. ‘Language Acquisition, Microcues, Parameters, and Morphosyntactic Change.’ In Richard D. Janda, Brian D. Joseph & Barbara S. Vance (eds.), Handbook of Historical Linguistics, Volume 2, Ch. 21. Wiley/Blackwell Publishers.

Lohndal, Terje & Marit Westergaard. 2019. Amerikanorsk endrar seg. Syn og Segn 125:1.19, 100-105.

Fabregás, Antonio, Merete Anderssen & Marit Westergaard. To appear/2019. ‘Complexity and word order: a comparison of Norwegian and Spanish L1 acquisition of possessive constructions.’ Journal of Comparative Germanic Linguistics.

Lohndal, Terje, Jason Rothman, Tanja Kupisch & Marit Westergaard. Accepted. ‘Heritage Language Acquisition and Attrition: What it Reveals and Why it is Important for Formal Linguistic Theories.’ Language and Linguistics Compass.


Anderssen, Merete, Björn Lundquist & Marit Westergaard. 2018. ‘Crosslinguistic similarities and differences in bilingual acquisition and attrition: Possessives and double definiteness in Norwegian heritage language.’ Bilingualism: Language and Cognition 21:4, 748-764. doi: 10.1017/S1366728918000330. Available here.

Mitrofanova, Natalia & Marit Westergaard. 2018. ‘Acquisition of Locative Utterances in Norwegian: Structure Building via Lexical Learning.’ Journal of Child Language. doi:10.1017/S0305000918000016. Available here.

Anderssen, Merete, Kristine Bentzen, Guro Busterud, Anne Dahl, Björn Lundquist & Marit Westergaard. 2018. ‘The Acquisition of Word Order in L2 Norwegian: The case of Subject and Object Shift.’ Nordic Journal of Linguistics 41.3: 247-274 ( Postprint available here.

Rothman, Jason, Fatih Bayram, Tanja Kupisch, Terje Lohndal & Marit Westergaard. 2018. ‘Generative Approaches to Second Language (L2) Acquisition and Advanced L2 Proficiency.’ In A. Benati & P. Malovrh (eds.), The Handbook of Advanced Proficiency in Second Language Acquisition, pp. 72-93. New York: Blackwell/Wiley.

Mitrofanova, Natalia, Yulia Rodina, Olga Urek & Marit Westergaard. 2018. ‘Bilinguals’ sensitivity to grammatical gender cues in Russian: the role of cumulative input, proficiency, and dominance.’ Frontiers in Psychology, doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2018.01894.

Wolleb, Anna, Antonella Sorace & Marit Westergaard. 2018. ‘Exploring the role of cognitive control in syntactic processing: Evidence from cross-language priming in bilingual children.’ Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism 8:5, 606-636. Published online 10 July 2017. DOI: 10.1075/lab.17002.wol.  Available here.


Westergaard, Marit. 2017. ‘Gradience and gradualness vs. abruptness.’ In Adam Ledgeway & Ian Roberts (eds.), Cambridge Handbook of Historical Syntax, Ch. 21, 446-466. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Westergaard, Marit, Øystein A. Vangsnes & Terje Lohndal. 2017. ‘Variation and change in Norwegian wh-questions: The role of the complementizer som.’ Linguistic Variation 17.1, 8-43. doi 10.1075/lv.17.1.02wes. Available here.

Castro, Tammer, Jason Rothman & Marit Westergaard. 2017. ‘On the directionality of cross-linguistic effects in bidialectal bilingualism.’ Frontiers in Psychology, DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01382. OPEN ACCESS here. Also available as part of an e-book here.

Bayram, Fatih, Mike Iverson, Tanja Kupisch, Eloi P. Mayenco, David Miller, Jason Rothman & Marit Westergaard. 2017. ‘Differences in Use without Deficiencies in Competence: Passives in the Turkish and German of Turkish Heritage Speakers in Germany.’ International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism. Available here.

Jensen, Isabel N., Roumyana Slabakova & Marit Westergaard. 2017. ‘The Bottleneck Hypothesis in L2 acquisition: A study of L1 Norwegian speakers’ knowledge of syntax and morphology in L2 English.’ In Maria LaMendola & Jennifer Scott (eds.), Proceedings of the 41st annual Boston University Conference on Language Development, 333-346. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Press. OPEN ACCESS here.

Westergaard, Marit. 2017. ‘Word order and verb movement in Norwegian wh-questions: A comparison of production and judgement data.’ In Bettelou Los & Pieter de Haan (eds.), Word Order Change in Acquisition and Language Contact: Essays in honour of Ans van Kemenade, 35-56. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi 10.1075/la.243.03wes. Post-print version here.

Olga Urek, Agrita Tauriņa, Marit Westergaard & Anna Vulāne. 2017. ‘Acquisition of definiteness marking in Latvian: evidence from monolinguals and bilinguals.’ In Dace Markus & Anna Vulāne (eds.), Child language in Latvia in the 21st century III, 103-126. SIA Zinatne.


Lundquist, Björn, Yulia Rodina, Irina Sekerina & Marit Westergaard. 2016. ‘Gender change in Norwegian dialects: Comprehension precedes production.’ Linguistics Vanguard 2:1, 69–83, DOI: 10.1515/lingvan-2016-0026. OPEN ACCESS here.

Castro, Tammer, Jason Rothman & Marit Westergaard. 2016. ‘Comparing anaphora resolution in Early and Late Brazilian Portuguese-European Portuguese bidialectal bilinguals.’ Revista Espanola de Linguística Aplicada/Spanish Journal of Applied Linguistics 29:2, 429-461 (post-print version).

Jason Rothman & Marit Westergaard (eds.). 2016. International Journal of Bilingualism. Special issue: L3 acquisition.

Westergaard, Marit & Yulia Rodina. 2016. ‘Hvor mange genus er det i Tromsødialekten?’ Maal og Minne 2, 159-189. OPEN ACCESS here.

Lohndal, Terje & Marit Westergaard. 2016. ‘Grammatical Gender in American Norwegian Heritage Language: Stability or attrition?’ Frontiers in Psychology 7:344. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00344. OPEN ACCESS here.

Westergaard, Marit, Natalia Mitrofanova, Roksolana Mykhaylyk & Yulia Rodina. 2016. ‘Crosslinguistic influence in the acquisition of a third language: The Linguistic Proximity Model.’ International Journal of Bilingualism. DOI: 10.1177/1367006916648859. OPEN ACCESS here.

Alonso, Jorge González, Jason Rothman, Denny Berndt, Tammer Castro & Marit Westergaard. 2016. ‘Broad scope and narrow focus: On the contemporary linguistic and psycholinguistic study of L3 acquisition.’ International Journal of BilingualismOPEN ACCESS here.

Westergaard, Marit. 2016. ‘Word order and finiteness in acquisition: A study of English and Norwegian wh-questions.’ In Kristin M. Eide (ed.), Finiteness matters. On finiteness-related phenomena in natural languages, 255-286. Amsterdam: John Benjamins (DOI: 10.1075/la.231.09wes) (post-print version).


Rodina, Yulia & Marit Westergaard. 2015. ‘Grammatical gender in bilingual Norwegian-Russian acquisition: The role of input and transparency.’ Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, doi:10.1017/S1366728915000668. OPEN ACCESS here.

Westergaard, Marit. 2015. ‘Complexity in child and adult language acquisition.’ Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism 5.4, 541-544. OPEN ACCESS here.

Mykhaylyk, Roksolana, Natalia Mitrofanova, Yulia Rodina & Marit Westergaard. 2015. ‘The Linguistic Proximity Model: The Case of Verb-Second Revisited.’ In Elisabeth Grillo & Kyle Jepsen (eds.), Proceedings of the 39th Boston University Conference on Language Development 2, 337-349. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Press.

Rodina, Yulia & Marit Westergaard. 2015. ‘Grammatical gender in Norwegian: Language acquisition and language change.’ Journal of Germanic Linguistics 27.2, 145-187. OPEN ACCESS here.

Westergaard, Marit & Merete Anderssen. 2015. ‘Word Order Variation in Norwegian Possessive Constructions: Bilingual Acquisition and Attrition.’ In Janne Bondi Johannessen & Joe Salmons (eds.), Germanic heritage languages in North America: Acquisition, attrition and change [Studies in Language Variation], 21-45. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. OPEN ACCESS here.

Westergaard, Marit. 2015. ‘Koffør dæm IKKE sir det? Om ordstilling i hv-spørsmål i nordnorske dialekter.’ Norsk Lingvistisk Tidsskrift 33:2, 175-199. OPEN ACCESS here.


Westergaard, Marit. 2014. ‘Linguistic variation and micro-cues in first language acquisition.’ Linguistic Variation, 14.1, 26-45 (post-print version).

Vangsnes, Øystein A. & Marit Westergaard. 2014. ‘Ka korpuset fortæll? Om ordstilling i hv-spørsmål i norske dialekter.’ [What does the corpus tell us? On word order in wh-questions in Norwegian dialects]. In Janne Bondi Johannessen & Kristin Hagen (eds.). Språk i Norge og nabolanda. Ny forskning om talespråk, 133-151. Oslo: Novus. OPEN ACCESS here.

Eitler, Tamás & Marit Westergaard. 2014. ‘Word order variation in late Middle English: The effect of information structure and audience design.’ In Kristin Bech & Kristine Eide (eds.), Information structure and syntactic change in Germanic and Romance languages, 203-231. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Westergaard, Marit. 2014. ‘Complexity and conflicting grammars in language acquisition.’ A commentary to Luiz Amaral & Tom Roeper ‘Multiple Grammars and Second Language Representation.’ Second Language Research 30.1, 85-89. DOI: 10.1177/0267658313518486 Post-print version here.

Westergaard, Marit, Antonella Sorace, Caroline Heycock & Kristine Bentzen. 2014. ‘Variable verb placement in embedded clauses: comparing English and Norwegian children and adults.’ In Carla Contemori & Lena Dal Pozzo (eds.), Inquiries into Linguistic Theory and Language Acquisition. Papers offered to Adriana Belletti, 229-238. Siena: CISCL Press.


Bentzen, Kristine & Marit Westergaard (eds.). 2013. Studia Linguistica 67.1. Special issue: The acquisition of Linguistic Variation. 1–183.

Rodina, Yulia & Marit Westergaard. 2013. ‘The acquisition of gender and declension in a non-transparent system: monolinguals and bilinguals.’ Studia Linguistica 67.1, 47-67. Post-print version here.

Rodina, Yulia & Marit Westergaard. 2013. ‘Two gender systems in one mind: The acquisition of grammatical gender in Russian-Norwegian bilinguals.’ In Hamburg Studies on Linguistic Diversity 1 [Multilingualism and Language Diversity in Urban Areas: Acquisition, identities, space, education], 95-126, Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Rodina, Yulia & Marit Westergaard. 2013. ‘The acquisition of gender: A bilingual case study.’ Advances in Language Acquisition, 355-363. Cambridge Scholars Press.

Westergaard, Marit. 2013. ‘The Acquisition of Linguistic Variation: Parameters vs. Micro-cues.’ In Terje Lohndal (ed.), In Search of Universal Grammar: From Old Norse to Zoque, 275-298. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Westergaard, Marit. 2013. ‘L’acquisizione della variazione linguistica.’ In Ermenegildo Bidese & Federica Cognola (eds.), Introduzione alla linguistica del mòcheno, 165-181. Turin: Rosenberg & Sellier.


Rodina, Yulia & Marit Westergaard. 2012. ‘A cue-based approach to the acquisition of grammatical gender in Russian.’ Journal of Child Language 39.5, 1077-1106. Post-print version here.

Anderssen, Merete & Marit Westergaard. 2012. ‘Tospråklighet og ordstilling i norske possessivkonstruksjoner.’ [Bilingualism and word order in Norwegian possessive constructions]. Norsk Lingvistisk Tidsskrift [Norwegian Journal of Linguistics] 30, 170-197. OPEN ACCESS here.

Kemenade, Ans van & Marit Westergaard. 2012. ‘Syntax and information structure: Verb-second variation in Middle English.’ In Anneli Meurman Solin, María José López-Couso & Bettelou Los (eds.) Information Structure and Syntactic Change in the History of English [Oxford Studies in the History of English 2], 87-118. New York: Oxford University Press.

Westergaard, Marit, Øystein A. Vangsnes & Terje Lohndal. 2012. ‘Norwegian som: The complementizer that climbed to the matrix Left Periphery and caused Verb Second violations.’ In Valentina Bianchi & Cristiano Chesi (eds.), Enjoy Linguistics! Papers offered to Luigi Rizzi on the occasion of his 60th birthday, 329-343. Siena: CISCL Press.

Kristine Bentzen, Marit Westergaard & Merete Anderssen. 2012. ‘Vet du kor du bør helst sette inn verbet hen? Om verbplassering i nordnorsk.’ Ottar 290, 25-31.

Westergaard, Marit, Merete Anderssen & Kristine Bentzen. 2012. ‘Det vil æ ikke eller det vil ikke æ: Ordstilling i nordnorsk barnespråk.’ Ottar 290, 10-16.

Anderssen, Merete, Kristine Bentzen & Marit Westergaard. 2012. ‘Min bil eller bilen min: Eiendomskonstruksjoner i norsk barnespråk og amerikanorsk.’ Ottar 290, 17-24.


Westergaard, Marit. 2011. ‘Subject positions and information structure: The effect of frequency on acquisition and change.’ Studia Linguistica 3, 299-332. Post-print version here.


Anderssen, Merete, Kristine Bentzen & Marit Westergaard (eds.). 2010. Variation in the Input: Studies in the Acquisition of Word Order. [Studies in Theoretical Psycholinguistics 39], Springer Verlag.

Anderssen, Merete, Kristine Bentzen, Yulia Rodina & Marit Westergaard. 2010. ‘The Acquisition of Apparent Optionality: Word Order in Subject and Object shift Constructions in Norwegian.’ In Merete Anderssen, Kristine Bentzen & Marit Westergaard (eds.), Variation in the Input: Studies in the Acquisition of Word Order. [Studies in Theoretical Psycholinguistics 39], 241-270, Springer Verlag.

Anderssen, Merete, Kristine Bentzen & Marit Westergaard. 2010. ‘The acquisition of (word order) variation.’ In Merete Anderssen, Kristine Bentzen & Marit Westergaard (eds.), Variation in the Input: Studies in the Acquisition of Word Order. [Studies in Theoretical Psycholinguistics 39], 1-15, Springer Verlag.

Westergaard, Marit. 2010. ‘Cue-based Acquisition and Information Structure Drift in Diachronic Language Development.’ In Gisella Ferraresi & Rosemarie Lühr (eds.), Diachronic Studies on Information Structure: Language Acquisition and Change [Language, Context and Cognition], Berlin: de Gruyter.

Anderssen, Merete and Marit Westergaard. 2010. ‘Frequency and economy in the acquisition of variable word order.’ Lingua 120.11, 2569-2588. DOI: 10.1016/j.lingua.2010.06.006. Post-print version here.

Westergaard, Marit & Kristine Bentzen. 2010. ‘Word order and finiteness in the acquisition of English and Norwegian wh-questions.’ In Katie Franich, Kate M. Iserman & Lauren L. Keil (eds.), Proceedings of the 34th annual Boston University Conference on Language Development, Vol 2: 457-467. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Press.

Bohnacker, Ute & Marit Westergaard (eds.). 2010. Nordic Journal of Linguistics 33.2, special issue on second language acquisition.

Anderssen, Merete & Marit Westergaard. 2010. ‘On the Impact of frequency in the acquisition of variable word order.’ In Katie Franich, Kate M. Iserman & Lauren L. Keil (eds.), Proceedings of the 34th annual Boston University Conference on Language Development, Vol 1: 1-10. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Press.


Westergaard, Marit. 2009. The Acquisition of Word Order: Micro-cues, Information Structure and Economy. [Linguistik Aktuell/Linguistics Today 145], Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Westergaard, Marit. 2009. ‘Usage-based vs. Rule-based Learning: The Acquisition of Word Order in Wh-Questions in English and Norwegian.’ Journal of Child Language 36.5, 1023-1051. DOI: 10.1017/S035000909009349. Post-print version here.

Westergaard, Marit. 2009. ‘Microvariation as Diachrony: A View from Acquisition.’ Journal of Comparative Germanic Linguistics, 12.1, 49-79.

Westergaard, Marit. 2009. ‘The Development of Word Order in Old and Middle English: The Role of Information Structure and First Language Acquisition.’ Diachronica 26.1, 65-102. DOI: 10.1075/dia.26.1.03wes. Post-print version here.

Westergaard, Marit. 2009. ‘Many Small Catastrophes: Gradualism in a Microparametric Perspective.’ In Paola Crisma & Guiseppe Longobardi (eds.), Historical Syntax and Linguistic Theory, 75-90. Oxford: Oxford University Press.


Westergaard, Marit. 2008. ‘Acquisition and Change: On the Robustness of the Triggering Experience for Word Order Cues.’ Lingua, 118.12, 1841-1863.

Westergaard, Marit. 2008. ‘Hvordan barn lærer språk: En sammenligning mellom ordstilling i engelsk og norsk.’ [How children learn language: A comparison between word order in English and Norwegian]. BARN 3, 21-35.

Rice, Curt & Marit Westergaard. 2008. ‘Barn påvirker språket.’ [Children affect the language] Labyrint, no. 1, 47.

Westergaard, Marit. 2008. ‘Verb Movement and Subject Placement in the Acquisition of Word Order: Pragmatics or Structural Economy?’ In Pedro Guijarro-Fuentes, Pilar Larranaga & John Clibbens (eds.), First Language Acquisition of Morphology and Syntax: Perspectives across languages and learners. [Language Acquisition and Language Disorders 45], 61-86. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

2007 and earlier (a selection)

Lightfoot, David & Marit Westergaard. 2007. ‘Language Acquisition and Language Change: Inter-relationships.’ Language and Linguistics Compass 1 (5), 396-416.

Westergaard, Marit & Kristine Bentzen. 2007. ‘The (non-) effect of input fre­quency on the acquisition of word order in Norwegian embedded clauses.’ In Insa Gülzow & Natalia Gagarina (eds.), Frequency Effects in Language Acquisition: Defining the Limits of Frequency as an Explanatory Concept, [Studies on Language Acquisition], 271-306. Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter.

Westergaard, Marit. 2007. ‘English as a Mixed V2 Grammar: Synchronic Word Order Inconsistencies from the Perspective of First Language Acquisition.’ Poznan Studies in Contemporary Linguistics 43(2), 107-131.

Westergaard, Marit R. 2006. ‘Triggering V2: The Amount of Input Needed for Parameter Setting in a Split-CP Model of Word Order.’ In Adriana Belletti, Elisa Bennati, Cristiano Chesi, Elisa DiDomenico & Ida Ferrari (eds.), Language Acquisition and Development: Proceedings of GALA 2005, 564-577. Cambridge: Cambridge Scholars Press.

Westergaard, Marit R. & Øystein A. Vangsnes. 2005. ‘Wh-questions, V2, and the left periphery of three Norwegian dialects.’ Journal of Comparative Germanic Linguistics 8, 117-158.

Westergaard, Marit R. 2005. ‘Optional Word Order in Wh-Questions in Two Norwegian Dialects: A Diachronic Analysis of Synchronic variation.’ Nordic Journal of Linguistics 28.2, 269-296. (pre-publication version)

Westergaard. Marit R. 2004. ‘The Interaction of Input and UG in the Acquisition of Verb Movement in a Dialect of Norwegian.’ Nordlyd 32.1: Tromsø Working Papers in Language Acquisition, 110-134.

Westergaard, Marit R. 2003. ‘Word Order in Wh-Questions in a North Norwegian Dialect: Some Evidence from an Acquisition Study.’ Nordic Journal of Linguistics 26.1, 81-109.

Hellekjær, Glenn O. & Marit R. Westergaard. 2003. ‘An Exploratory Survey of Content Learning through English at Scandinavian Universities.’ In C. van Leeuwen & R. Wilkinson (eds.), Multilingual Approaches in University Education: Challenges and Practices, Uitgeverij Valkhof Pers, Nijmegen and Talencentrum Universiteit Maastricht, 65-80.

Westergaard, Marit R. 2003. ‘Unlearning V2: Transfer, Markedness, and the Importance of Input Cues in the Acquisition of Word Order in English by Norwegian Children.’ EUROSLA Yearbook 3, 77-101.

Westergaard, Marit R. 1986. Definite NP Anaphora: A Pragmatic Approach. Oslo: Norwegian University Press.

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