If you are interested in a copy of any of these publications, some of them may be found in UiT’s open access repository Munin. You may also just write me an e-mail.


Mitrofanova, Natalia, Yulia Rodina, Olga Urek & Marit Westergaard. Accepted. Bilinguals’ sensitivity to grammatical gender cues in Russian: the role of cumulative input, proficiency, and dominance. Frontiers in Psychology.

Miller, David, Jason Rothman, Terje Lohndal & Marit Westergaard. Submitted. ‘New Horizons: Evidence and Epistemology in Modern Generative Second Language Acquisition?’

Wolleb, Anna, Antonella Sorace & Marit Westergaard. In press. ‘Language control and executive control: Can studies on language processing distinguish the two?’ In Irina Sekerina & Lauren Spradlin (eds.), Studies in Bilingualism. 

Westergaard, Marit & Terje Lohndal. Forthcoming/2019. ‘Verb second word order in Norwegian heritage language: Syntax and pragmatics.’ In David Lightfoot & Jon Haven­hill (eds.), Variable properties in language: Their nature and acquisition. Washing­ton, DC: Georgetown University Press.

Rothman, Jason, Fatih Bayram, Tanja Kupisch, Terje Lohndal & Marit Westergaard. 2018. ‘Generative Approaches to Second Language (L2) Acquisition and Advanced L2 Proficiency.’ In A. Benati & P. Malovrh (eds.), The Handbook of Advanced Proficiency in Second Language Acquisition, pp. 72-93. New York: Blackwell/Wiley.

Lohndal, Terje, Marit Westergaard & Øystein Vangsnes. Forthcoming. ‘Verb Second in Norwegian: Variation and Acquisition.’ In Theresa Biberauer, Rebecca Woods & Sam Wolfe (eds.), Rethinking V2. Oxford University Press.

Castro, Tammer, Jason Rothman & Marit Westergaard. Revised and resubmitted. ‘Syntactic Contrasts in Early and Late Brazilian Portuguese-European Portuguese Bidialectal Bilinguals: Data from Production.’ In K. Molsing, C. Lopes Perna & A. Ibaños (eds.), Linguistic Approaches to Portuguese as an Additional Language. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Westergaard, Marit & Tanja Kupisch. Submitted. ‘Stable and vulnerable domains in Germanic Heritage Languages.’ Blackwell Handbook of Germanic Languages.

Anderssen, Merete, Kristine Bentzen, Guro Busterud, Anne Dahl, Jelena Didriksen, Björn Lundquist & Marit Westergaard. Forthcoming. ‘The Acquisition of Word Order in L2 Norwegian: The case of Subject and Object Shift.’ Nordic Journal of Linguistics.

Olga Urek, Marit Westergaard & Agrita Taurina. Under revision. ‘Acquisition of adjectival gender agreement in monolinguals and bilinguals: evidence from Latvian and Russian.’ Available here.

Anderssen, Merete, Björn Lundquist & Marit Westergaard. 2018. ‘Crosslinguistic similarities and differences in bilingual acquisition and attrition: Possessives and double definiteness in Norwegian heritage language.’ Bilingualism: Language and Cognition 21:4, 748-764. doi: 10.1017/S1366728918000330. Available here.

Anderssen, Merete & Marit Westergaard. Forthcoming. ‘Word Order Variation in Heritage Language: Subject Shift and Object Shift in Norwegian.’ Lost in Transmission [Studies in Bilingualism]. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Busterud, Guro, Terje Lohndal, Yulia Rodina & Marit Westergaard. Forthcoming. ‘The loss of feminine gender in Norwegian: A dialect comparison.’ Journal of Comparative Germanic Linguistics.

Mitrofanova, Natalia & Marit Westergaard. 2018. ‘Acquisition of Locative Utterances in Norwegian: Structure Building via Lexical Learning.’ Journal of Child Language. doi:10.1017/S0305000918000016. Available here.

Westergaard, Marit. In press. ‘Language Acquisition, Microcues, Parameters, and Morphosyntactic Change.’ In Richard D. Janda, Brian D. Joseph & Barbara S. Vance (eds.), Handbook of Historical Linguistics, Volume 2, Ch. 21. Wiley/Blackwell Publishers.

Fabregás, Antonio, Merete Anderssen & Marit Westergaard. To appear. ‘Complexity and word order: a comparison of Norwegian and Spanish L1 acquisition of possessive constructions.’ Journal of Comparative Germanic Linguistics.

Lohndal, Terje, Jason Rothman, Tanja Kupisch & Marit Westergaard. Accepted. ‘Heritage Language Acquisition and Attrition: What it Reveals and Why it is Important for Formal Linguistic Theories.’ Language and Linguistics Compass.


Wolleb, Anna, Antonella Sorace & Marit Westergaard. 2017. ‘Exploring the role of cognitive control in syntactic processing: Evidence from cross-language priming in bilingual children.’ Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism,
DOI: 10.1075/lab.17002.wol. Available here.

Westergaard, Marit. 2017. ‘Gradience and gradualness vs. abruptness.’ In Adam Ledgeway & Ian Roberts (eds.), Cambridge Handbook of Historical Syntax, Ch. 21, 446-466. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Westergaard, Marit, Øystein A. Vangsnes & Terje Lohndal. 2017. ‘Variation and change in Norwegian wh-questions: The role of the complementizer som.’ Linguistic Variation 17.1, 8-43. doi 10.1075/lv.17.1.02wes. Available here.

Castro, Tammer, Jason Rothman & Marit Westergaard. 2017. ‘On the directionality of cross-linguistic effects in bidialectal bilingualism.’ Frontiers in Psychology, DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01382. OPEN ACCESS here.

Bayram, Fatih, Mike Iverson, Tanja Kupisch, Eloi P. Mayenco, David Miller, Jason Rothman & Marit Westergaard. 2017. ‘Differences in Use without Deficiencies in Competence: Passives in the Turkish and German of Turkish Heritage Speakers in Germany.’ International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism. Available here.

Jensen, Isabel N., Roumyana Slabakova & Marit Westergaard. 2017. ‘The Bottleneck Hypothesis in L2 acquisition: A study of L1 Norwegian speakers’ knowledge of syntax and morphology in L2 English.’ In Maria LaMendola & Jennifer Scott (eds.), Proceedings of the 41st annual Boston University Conference on Language Development, 333-346. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Press. OPEN ACCESS here.

Westergaard, Marit. 2017. ‘Word order and verb movement in Norwegian wh-questions: A comparison of production and judgement data.’ In Bettelou Los & Pieter de Haan (eds.), Word Order Change in Acquisition and Language Contact: Essays in honour of Ans van Kemenade, 35-56. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi 10.1075/la.243.03wes. Post-print version here.

Olga Urek, Agrita Tauriņa, Marit Westergaard & Anna Vulāne. 2017. ‘Acquisition of definiteness marking in Latvian: evidence from monolinguals and bilinguals.’ In Dace Markus & Anna Vulāne (eds.), Child language in Latvia in the 21st century III, 103-126. SIA Zinatne.


Lundquist, Björn, Yulia Rodina, Irina Sekerina & Marit Westergaard. 2016. ‘Gender change in Norwegian dialects: Comprehension precedes production.’ Linguistics Vanguard 2:1, 69–83, DOI: 10.1515/lingvan-2016-0026. OPEN ACCESS here.

Castro, Tammer, Jason Rothman & Marit Westergaard. 2016. ‘Comparing anaphora resolution in Early and Late Brazilian Portuguese-European Portuguese bidialectal bilinguals.’ Revista Espanola de Linguística Aplicada/Spanish Journal of Applied Linguistics 29:2, 429-461 (post-print version).

Jason Rothman & Marit Westergaard (eds.). 2016. International Journal of Bilingualism. Special issue: L3 acquisition.

Westergaard, Marit & Yulia Rodina. 2016. ‘Hvor mange genus er det i Tromsødialekten?’ Maal og Minne 2, 159-189. OPEN ACCESS here.

Lohndal, Terje & Marit Westergaard. 2016. ‘Grammatical Gender in American Norwegian Heritage Language: Stability or attrition?’ Frontiers in Psychology 7:344. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00344. OPEN ACCESS here.

Westergaard, Marit, Natalia Mitrofanova, Roksolana Mykhaylyk & Yulia Rodina. 2016. ‘Crosslinguistic influence in the acquisition of a third language: The Linguistic Proximity Model.’ International Journal of Bilingualism. DOI: 10.1177/1367006916648859. OPEN ACCESS here.

Alonso, Jorge González, Jason Rothman, Denny Berndt, Tammer Castro & Marit Westergaard. 2016. ‘Broad scope and narrow focus: On the contemporary linguistic and psycholinguistic study of L3 acquisition.’ International Journal of BilingualismOPEN ACCESS here.

Westergaard, Marit. 2016. ‘Word order and finiteness in acquisition: A study of English and Norwegian wh-questions.’ In Kristin M. Eide (ed.), Finiteness matters. On finiteness-related phenomena in natural languages, 255-286. Amsterdam: John Benjamins (DOI: 10.1075/la.231.09wes) (post-print version).


Rodina, Yulia & Marit Westergaard. 2015. ‘Grammatical gender in bilingual Norwegian-Russian acquisition: The role of input and transparency.’ Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, doi:10.1017/S1366728915000668. OPEN ACCESS here.

Westergaard, Marit. 2015. ‘Complexity in child and adult language acquisition.’ Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism 5.4, 541-544. OPEN ACCESS here.

Mykhaylyk, Roksolana, Natalia Mitrofanova, Yulia Rodina & Marit Westergaard. 2015. ‘The Linguistic Proximity Model: The Case of Verb-Second Revisited.’ In Elisabeth Grillo & Kyle Jepsen (eds.), Proceedings of the 39th Boston University Conference on Language Development 2, 337-349. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Press.

Rodina, Yulia & Marit Westergaard. 2015. ‘Grammatical gender in Norwegian: Language acquisition and language change.’ Journal of Germanic Linguistics 27.2, 145-187. OPEN ACCESS here.

Westergaard, Marit & Merete Anderssen. 2015. ‘Word Order Variation in Norwegian Possessive Constructions: Bilingual Acquisition and Attrition.’ In Janne Bondi Johannessen & Joe Salmons (eds.), Germanic heritage languages in North America: Acquisition, attrition and change [Studies in Language Variation], 21-45. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. OPEN ACCESS here.

Westergaard, Marit. 2015. ‘Koffør dæm IKKE sir det? Om ordstilling i hv-spørsmål i nordnorske dialekter.’ Norsk Lingvistisk Tidsskrift 33:2, 175-199. OPEN ACCESS here.


Westergaard, Marit. 2014. ‘Linguistic variation and micro-cues in first language acquisition.’ Linguistic Variation, 14.1, 26-45 (post-print version).

Vangsnes, Øystein A. & Marit Westergaard. 2014. ‘Ka korpuset fortæll? Om ordstilling i hv-spørsmål i norske dialekter.’ [What does the corpus tell us? On word order in wh-questions in Norwegian dialects]. In Janne Bondi Johannessen & Kristin Hagen (eds.). Språk i Norge og nabolanda. Ny forskning om talespråk, 133-151. Oslo: Novus. OPEN ACCESS here.

Eitler, Tamás & Marit Westergaard. 2014. ‘Word order variation in late Middle English: The effect of information structure and audience design.’ In Kristin Bech & Kristine Eide (eds.), Information structure and syntactic change in Germanic and Romance languages, 203-231. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Westergaard, Marit. 2014. ‘Complexity and conflicting grammars in language acquisition.’ A commentary to Luiz Amaral & Tom Roeper ‘Multiple Grammars and Second Language Representation.’ Second Language Research 30.1, 85-89. DOI: 10.1177/0267658313518486 Post-print version here.

Westergaard, Marit, Antonella Sorace, Caroline Heycock & Kristine Bentzen. 2014. ‘Variable verb placement in embedded clauses: comparing English and Norwegian children and adults.’ In Carla Contemori & Lena Dal Pozzo (eds.), Inquiries into Linguistic Theory and Language Acquisition. Papers offered to Adriana Belletti, 229-238. Siena: CISCL Press.


Bentzen, Kristine & Marit Westergaard (eds.). 2013. Studia Linguistica 67.1. Special issue: The acquisition of Linguistic Variation. 1–183.

Rodina, Yulia & Marit Westergaard. 2013. ‘The acquisition of gender and declension in a non-transparent system: monolinguals and bilinguals.’ Studia Linguistica 67.1, 47-67. Post-print version here.

Rodina, Yulia & Marit Westergaard. 2013. ‘Two gender systems in one mind: The acquisition of grammatical gender in Russian-Norwegian bilinguals.’ In Hamburg Studies on Linguistic Diversity 1 [Multilingualism and Language Diversity in Urban Areas: Acquisition, identities, space, education], 95-126, Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Rodina, Yulia & Marit Westergaard. 2013. ‘The acquisition of gender: A bilingual case study.’ Advances in Language Acquisition, 355-363. Cambridge Scholars Press.

Westergaard, Marit. 2013. ‘The Acquisition of Linguistic Variation: Parameters vs. Micro-cues.’ In Terje Lohndal (ed.), In Search of Universal Grammar: From Old Norse to Zoque, 275-298. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Westergaard, Marit. 2013. ‘L’acquisizione della variazione linguistica.’ In Ermenegildo Bidese & Federica Cognola (eds.), Introduzione alla linguistica del mòcheno, 165-181. Turin: Rosenberg & Sellier.


Rodina, Yulia & Marit Westergaard. 2012. ‘A cue-based approach to the acquisition of grammatical gender in Russian.’ Journal of Child Language 39.5, 1077-1106. Post-print version here.

Anderssen, Merete & Marit Westergaard. 2012. ‘Tospråklighet og ordstilling i norske possessivkonstruksjoner.’ [Bilingualism and word order in Norwegian possessive constructions]. Norsk Lingvistisk Tidsskrift [Norwegian Journal of Linguistics] 30, 170-197. OPEN ACCESS here.

Kemenade, Ans van & Marit Westergaard. 2012. ‘Syntax and information structure: Verb-second variation in Middle English.’ In Anneli Meurman Solin, María José López-Couso & Bettelou Los (eds.) Information Structure and Syntactic Change in the History of English [Oxford Studies in the History of English 2], 87-118. New York: Oxford University Press.

Westergaard, Marit, Øystein A. Vangsnes & Terje Lohndal. 2012. ‘Norwegian som: The complementizer that climbed to the matrix Left Periphery and caused Verb Second violations.’ In Valentina Bianchi & Cristiano Chesi (eds.), Enjoy Linguistics! Papers offered to Luigi Rizzi on the occasion of his 60th birthday, 329-343. Siena: CISCL Press.

Kristine Bentzen, Marit Westergaard & Merete Anderssen. 2012. ‘Vet du kor du bør helst sette inn verbet hen? Om verbplassering i nordnorsk.’ Ottar 290, 25-31.

Westergaard, Marit, Merete Anderssen & Kristine Bentzen. 2012. ‘Det vil æ ikke eller det vil ikke æ: Ordstilling i nordnorsk barnespråk.’ Ottar 290, 10-16.

Anderssen, Merete, Kristine Bentzen & Marit Westergaard. 2012. ‘Min bil eller bilen min: Eiendomskonstruksjoner i norsk barnespråk og amerikanorsk.’ Ottar 290, 17-24.


Westergaard, Marit. 2011. ‘Subject positions and information structure: The effect of frequency on acquisition and change.’ Studia Linguistica 3, 299-332. Post-print version here.


Anderssen, Merete, Kristine Bentzen & Marit Westergaard (eds.). 2010. Variation in the Input: Studies in the Acquisition of Word Order. [Studies in Theoretical Psycholinguistics 39], Springer Verlag.

Anderssen, Merete, Kristine Bentzen, Yulia Rodina & Marit Westergaard. 2010. ‘The Acquisition of Apparent Optionality: Word Order in Subject and Object shift Constructions in Norwegian.’ In Merete Anderssen, Kristine Bentzen & Marit Westergaard (eds.), Variation in the Input: Studies in the Acquisition of Word Order. [Studies in Theoretical Psycholinguistics 39], 241-270, Springer Verlag.

Anderssen, Merete, Kristine Bentzen & Marit Westergaard. 2010. ‘The acquisition of (word order) variation.’ In Merete Anderssen, Kristine Bentzen & Marit Westergaard (eds.), Variation in the Input: Studies in the Acquisition of Word Order. [Studies in Theoretical Psycholinguistics 39], 1-15, Springer Verlag.

Westergaard, Marit. 2010. ‘Cue-based Acquisition and Information Structure Drift in Diachronic Language Development.’ In Gisella Ferraresi & Rosemarie Lühr (eds.), Diachronic Studies on Information Structure: Language Acquisition and Change [Language, Context and Cognition], Berlin: de Gruyter.

Anderssen, Merete and Marit Westergaard. 2010. ‘Frequency and economy in the acquisition of variable word order.’ Lingua 120.11, 2569-2588. DOI: 10.1016/j.lingua.2010.06.006. Post-print version here.

Westergaard, Marit & Kristine Bentzen. 2010. ‘Word order and finiteness in the acquisition of English and Norwegian wh-questions.’ In Katie Franich, Kate M. Iserman & Lauren L. Keil (eds.), Proceedings of the 34th annual Boston University Conference on Language Development, Vol 2: 457-467. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Press.

Bohnacker, Ute & Marit Westergaard (eds.). 2010. Nordic Journal of Linguistics 33.2, special issue on second language acquisition.

Anderssen, Merete & Marit Westergaard. 2010. ‘On the Impact of frequency in the acquisition of variable word order.’ In Katie Franich, Kate M. Iserman & Lauren L. Keil (eds.), Proceedings of the 34th annual Boston University Conference on Language Development, Vol 1: 1-10. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Press.


Westergaard, Marit. 2009. The Acquisition of Word Order: Micro-cues, Information Structure and Economy. [Linguistik Aktuell/Linguistics Today 145], Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Westergaard, Marit. 2009. ‘Usage-based vs. Rule-based Learning: The Acquisition of Word Order in Wh-Questions in English and Norwegian.’ Journal of Child Language 36.5, 1023-1051. DOI: 10.1017/S035000909009349. Post-print version here.

Westergaard, Marit. 2009. ‘Microvariation as Diachrony: A View from Acquisition.’ Journal of Comparative Germanic Linguistics, 12.1, 49-79.

Westergaard, Marit. 2009. ‘The Development of Word Order in Old and Middle English: The Role of Information Structure and First Language Acquisition.’ Diachronica 26.1, 65-102. DOI: 10.1075/dia.26.1.03wes. Post-print version here.

Westergaard, Marit. 2009. ‘Many Small Catastrophes: Gradualism in a Microparametric Perspective.’ In Paola Crisma & Guiseppe Longobardi (eds.), Historical Syntax and Linguistic Theory, 75-90. Oxford: Oxford University Press.


Westergaard, Marit. 2008. ‘Acquisition and Change: On the Robustness of the Triggering Experience for Word Order Cues.’ Lingua, 118.12, 1841-1863.

Westergaard, Marit. 2008. ‘Hvordan barn lærer språk: En sammenligning mellom ordstilling i engelsk og norsk.’ [How children learn language: A comparison between word order in English and Norwegian]. BARN 3, 21-35.

Rice, Curt & Marit Westergaard. 2008. ‘Barn påvirker språket.’ [Children affect the language] Labyrint, no. 1, 47.

Westergaard, Marit. 2008. ‘Verb Movement and Subject Placement in the Acquisition of Word Order: Pragmatics or Structural Economy?’ In Pedro Guijarro-Fuentes, Pilar Larranaga & John Clibbens (eds.), First Language Acquisition of Morphology and Syntax: Perspectives across languages and learners. [Language Acquisition and Language Disorders 45], 61-86. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

2007 and earlier (a selection)

Lightfoot, David & Marit Westergaard. 2007. ‘Language Acquisition and Language Change: Inter-relationships.’ Language and Linguistics Compass 1 (5), 396-416.

Westergaard, Marit & Kristine Bentzen. 2007. ‘The (non-) effect of input fre­quency on the acquisition of word order in Norwegian embedded clauses.’ In Insa Gülzow & Natalia Gagarina (eds.), Frequency Effects in Language Acquisition: Defining the Limits of Frequency as an Explanatory Concept, [Studies on Language Acquisition], 271-306. Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter.

Westergaard, Marit. 2007. ‘English as a Mixed V2 Grammar: Synchronic Word Order Inconsistencies from the Perspective of First Language Acquisition.’ Poznan Studies in Contemporary Linguistics 43(2), 107-131.

Westergaard, Marit R. 2006. ‘Triggering V2: The Amount of Input Needed for Parameter Setting in a Split-CP Model of Word Order.’ In Adriana Belletti, Elisa Bennati, Cristiano Chesi, Elisa DiDomenico & Ida Ferrari (eds.), Language Acquisition and Development: Proceedings of GALA 2005, 564-577. Cambridge: Cambridge Scholars Press.

Westergaard, Marit R. & Øystein A. Vangsnes. 2005. ‘Wh-questions, V2, and the left periphery of three Norwegian dialects.’ Journal of Comparative Germanic Linguistics 8, 117-158.

Westergaard, Marit R. 2005. ‘Optional Word Order in Wh-Questions in Two Norwegian Dialects: A Diachronic Analysis of Synchronic variation.’ Nordic Journal of Linguistics 28.2, 269-296. (pre-publication version)

Westergaard. Marit R. 2004. ‘The Interaction of Input and UG in the Acquisition of Verb Movement in a Dialect of Norwegian.’ Nordlyd 32.1: Tromsø Working Papers in Language Acquisition, 110-134.

Westergaard, Marit R. 2003. ‘Word Order in Wh-Questions in a North Norwegian Dialect: Some Evidence from an Acquisition Study.’ Nordic Journal of Linguistics 26.1, 81-109.

Hellekjær, Glenn O. & Marit R. Westergaard. 2003. ‘An Exploratory Survey of Content Learning through English at Scandinavian Universities.’ In C. van Leeuwen & R. Wilkinson (eds.), Multilingual Approaches in University Education: Challenges and Practices, Uitgeverij Valkhof Pers, Nijmegen and Talencentrum Universiteit Maastricht, 65-80.

Westergaard, Marit R. 2003. ‘Unlearning V2: Transfer, Markedness, and the Importance of Input Cues in the Acquisition of Word Order in English by Norwegian Children.’ EUROSLA Yearbook 3, 77-101.

Westergaard, Marit R. 1986. Definite NP Anaphora: A Pragmatic Approach. Oslo: Norwegian University Press.

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