2020 Publications

 

Andreassen, B.-O. (2020). Doctoral theses on Laestadius and the Laestadian movement 1937–2018. Approaching Religion, 10(1), 91–109. https://doi.org/10.30664/ar.86819

Abstract
The scope of the review is all doctoral theses that exist on Laestadius and the Laestadian movement. A total of 31 doctoral theses on Laestadius and the Laestadian movement are included in this review. The Laestadian movement is an international one, albeit primarily established in the Nordic countries, Finland, Norway, and Sweden. The review aims to present an overview of doctoral theses, countries in which they are produced, which academic disciplines that have contributed to the research, and finally discusses some main tendencies.


Andreassen, B.-O., & Olsen, T. A. (2020). ‘Sami religion’ in Sámi curricula in RE in the Norwegian school system: An analysis of the importance of terms. Religions, 11(9), 1–16. https://doi.org/10.3390/rel11090448

Abstract
In this article, we map and analyse the changes in conceptualisation and ideas on Sámi and indigenous people in the Sámi (Religious Education) RE curricula for primary and secondary school in the period from 1997 to 2015. Through the analysis of five sets of curricula for RE in this period, we investigate how they introduce a new set of ideas and concepts concerning religion related to the Sámi as an indigenous people. ‘Circumpolar indigenous people’s religion’ is a concept and a category that is primarily found within the Sámi curriculum of Norway’s educational system. As such, we argue it is a way of religion making through the conceptualization of Sámi religion in particular, and indigenous religions in general.


Fogarty, W. (2020). The CoVID-19 conundrum in remote Indigenous Australia: Schools. In F. Markham, D. Smith & F. Morphy (Eds.), Indigenous Australians and the COVID-19 crisis: Perspectives on public policy (CAEPR Topical Issue No. 1/2020, pp. 21–23). Centre for Aboriginal Economic Policy Research, The Australian National University. https://doi.org/10.25911/5e8702ec1fba2

Abstract
This is one of eight short papers that have been written during the rapid escalation of the Australian response to the COVID-19 pandemic. First Nations people are being, and will continue to be, affected by this crisis in ways that differ from the effects on other Australians. The pandemic risks exacerbating deep-seated health, social and economic inequities in Australian society, especially the long-standing inequalities between First Nations people and other Australians. The pandemic has also made plain the shortcomings of the relationships between Indigenous people and Australian governments, revealing a governance gap that is difficult to ignore. But despite these inimical conditions, the disruption of the COVID-19 crisis is opening up new opportunities for public policy change. And many First Nation organisations and communities are leading the way. Unprecedented new government expenditure creates space for policy innovation, as the boundaries of what is possible become blurred. The pandemic is a time of stark risks, but it is also a time when informed policy bravery could create new foundations for a better future.


Frangou, S.-M., & Keskitalo, P. (2020). Enhancing social learning through digital applications: Life stance education and Sámi pedagogy move to synchronous distance learning in teacher education. In R. E. Ferdig, E. Baumgartner, R. Hartshorn., R. Kaplan-Rakowski, & C. Mouza (Eds.), Teaching, technology, and teacher education during the COVID-19 pandemic: Stories from the field (pp. 23–26). Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education.

Abstract
This article explores how courses in life stance education and Sami pedagogy in the primary school teacher education program at the University of Lapland were transferred online mid-session due to the COVID-19 pandemic and how the lecturers (N = 2) and preservice teachers (N = 64) experienced distance learning. The lectures were organized so that the learning expectations were fulfilled, hence, the chosen applications supported interactive and dialogical working methods leading to social learning. The students’ feedback was generally positive, and they were pleased that an interactive and dialogical atmosphere could be created with synchronous distance learning. Students also expressed that online learning put them under time pressure, made delimiting tasks more difficult, and induced in them a need for one-on-one supervision. Lecturers need to take these implications into account when planning and conducting online teaching. The process created a two-way-learning place for lecturers and preservice teachers alike.


Keskitalo, P., Frangou, S.-M., & Chohan, I. (2020). Education design research in collaboration with students: Using digital tools to learn and reindeer herding within a vocational Sámi pedagogical context. Education in the North, 27(1), 58–77. https://doi.org/10.26203/3jtv-9g81

Abstract
This article aims to develop and update a reindeer herding study programme in a vocational school in Lapland, Finland in cooperation with the teachers and students. The possibilities for developing motivating learning environments are investigated in the context of reindeer herding, with the ultimate objective being to enhance student interest in their studies and working life through the use of digital technologies. Educational design research is optimal because it is founded upon the needs and challenges of education providers, and solutions can be developed through cyclical processes involving reindeer herding study programme students. Data were collected through focus group interviews. During the development process, particular attention was given to indigenous Sámi pedagogy to consider the students’ sociocultural backgrounds and the ecocultural learning environment. The Triple E framework (Kolb, 2017) is applied to analyse the results in terms of how technology (a) motivates students to actively engage in learning, (b) enhances and builds upon their learning and (c) extends and bridges learning to students’ everyday lives and working lives. Based on the results, we created a model of vocational Sámi pedagogy that highlights a working-life connection, sustainable ecocultural context, motivation and meaningful digital solutions.


Ninkova, V. (2020). Perpetuating the myth of the ‘wild Bushman’: Inclusive multicultural education for the Omaheke Ju|’hoansi in Namibia. Comparative Education Review, 64 (2), 159–179. https://doi.org/10.1086/708177

Abstract
Namibia has adopted an inclusive education policy with emphasis on cultural and linguistic diversity. The policy encourages educators to adapt the curriculum and include content that reflects the cultural background of their learners. Despite these positive provisions, severely marginalized groups, such as the Omaheke Ju|’hoansi, continue to underperform and drop out of school at greater rates than learners from other groups. This article is based on ethnographic work in eight primary schools in east central Namibia and explores how educators understand and treat Ju|’hoan culture in schools. Analysis of the data points to preoccupation with superficial cultural differences that further marginalize Ju|’hoan learners. The study discusses the challenges of multicultural education for severely marginalized groups and questions its applicability in a highly segregated society.


O’Bryan, M., & Fogarty, W. (2020). Boarding off and on Country: A study of education in one northern territory remote community (CAEPR Commissioned Report No. 04). Centre for Aboriginal Economic Policy Research, The Australian National University. https://doi.org/10.25911/5f1fff279309f

Abstract
In 2020, young people from remote communities in Australia’s Northern Territory are required to attend boarding school in order to access a full secondary education. Commissioned by elders in one Northern Territory remote community, this report investigates the intended and unintended consequences of this policy approach at individual and community level. Working with families, researchers tracked the education histories of 100 12–21-year-old young people identified as community members. Findings reveal that for this community, the supply of boarding places is not equal to demand, and that families experience difficulties securing secondary pathways for their children. Members of the research cohort had been dispersed among 38 different schools across 16 cities or towns in every state or territory of mainland Australia. A concerning pattern of early disengagement from education and low levels of academic attainment is apparent, with consequences for youth wellbeing and community cohesion.

Findings of the study indicate the need for further systems-level research to test the generalisability of findings across other remote communities. They demonstrate that educational determinants in remote contexts (such as the community in this study) including housing, health, justice and employment need to be explicitly understood and quantified in policy discussions concerning educational effectiveness and secondary provision cost. The study has shown a large disconnect between local educational aspiration and system-level provision. Policy decisions should seek to identify models which are shown to increase the likelihood of education engagement and attainment in place. The community involved in this study are adamant that ‘place-based approaches’ to educational development must be paramount. This is likely to be generalised to other remote settings.


Paksuniemi, M., Körkkö, M., Keskitalo, P., & Norvapalo, K. (Eds.). (2020). Guide to culturally responsive teaching and diverse learners in the daily life of schools. Migration Institute of Finland.

Abstract
The purpose of this booklet is to increase research-based knowledge of culturally responsive teaching and offer practical examples that can be used in primary school teacher training and when tutoring and teaching learners with a diverse needs and minority or immigrant backgrounds. The name of this booklet derives from the idea, shared by the three projects, of applying culturally responsive teaching in the daily activities of teachers and schools. This guide is a response to the need to manage increasingly diverse teaching contexts. Teachers and primary school student teachers need information about the theory and practice of culturally responsive teaching in order to manage complex learning and teaching situations. The authors of this guide are experts from the three projects as well as invited writers.


Sarivaara, E. K., Keskitalo, P., & Ratinen, I. (2020). Finnish student teachers’ conceptions and experiences of nature. Journal of Adventure Education and Outdoor Learning, 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1080/14729679.2020.1755705

Abstract
Based on the premise that outdoor-oriented learning relies on students’ perceptions of nature, this study contributes to the development of outdoor-based education in the Arctic and northern context. The study analyses conceptions and lifetime experiences of nature as reported by students (N = 46) in Sustainability and Outdoor Education-Oriented Teacher Education in Finland. A web-based questionnaire was used to gather data for content analysis. The results revealed variations in the students’ perceptions, although all were very aware of their connection to nature in the Arctic. The findings confirm the need for teachers to be aware that students’ perceptions and lived experiences of nature affect their ability to work with nature-related issues. As those perceptions vary according to background, personal connections and existing knowledge, student-centred education for teachers should take account of these factors.


Trimmer, K., Hoven, D., & Keskitalo, P. (Eds.). (2020). Indigenous postgraduate education: Intercultural perspectives. Information Age Publishing.

Abstract
This book focuses on Indigenous participation in postgraduate education. The collaborating editors, from the contexts of Australian, Canadian and Nordic postgraduate education, have brought together voices of Indigenous postgraduate students and researchers about strategies to support postgraduate education for Indigenous students globally and to promote sustainable solution-focused and change-focused strategies to support Indigenous postgraduate students. The role of higher education institutions in meeting the needs of Indigenous students is considered by contributing scholars, including issues related to postgraduate education pedagogies, flexible learning and technologies. On a more fundamental level the book provides a valuable resource by giving voice to Indigenous postgraduate students themselves who share directly the stories of their experience, their inspirations and difficulties in undertaking postgraduate study. This component of the book gives precedence to the issues most relevant and important to students themselves for consideration by universities and researchers. Bringing the topic and the voices of Indigenous students clearly into the public domain provides a catalyst for discussion of the issues and potential strategies to assist future Indigenous postgraduate students.

 

2019 Publications

 

Andreassen, B.-O. (2019). ‘Knowledge about religions’ and analytical skills in religious education: Reflections from a Norwegian context. Center for Educational Policy Studies Journal, 9(4), 73–90. https://doi.org/10.26529/cepsj.676

Abstract
Religious education appears in many different models and varies between educational systems and national contexts. Theoretically, religious education is usually divided into confessional and non-confessional models. However, as several researchers have pointed out, the non-confessional models can be ‘marinated’ in confessional religion. In most national contexts, regardless of the model on which it is based, religious education is intended to serve the promotion of social cohesion by way of promoting knowledge and understanding of the new multi‑religious world. However, in official documents and scholarly literature, there is a taken-for-granted relationship between ‘knowledge of religion’ and such general aims. In the article, critical questions concerning this relationship will be raised.


Andreassen, B.-O. (2019). Taler i trykk: Bokhistoriske perspektiver på utgivelser av Læstadius’ taler. Din—Tidsskrift for religion og kultur, 1, 7–33.

Abstract
The aim of this article is twofold. First, a mapping of Norwegian and Swedish translations and releases of Lars Levi Laestadius’ sermons will be made. Secondly, a book-historical approach to each publication will contexualise the background for the release and the translation. The mapping has shown that later translations are related with one (or more) of three Finnish postillas in the period 1876 to 1924, which simply are referred to as the first, second and third postilla. The book-historical approach shows that releases of Laestadius’ speeches primarily is a matter of internal interest in the Laestadian movement. Furthermore, most of the of publications in Finnish, Norwegian and Swedish can be linked to initiatives from one specific Laestadian group, The Firstborn group. Findings from the article’s mapping are finally discussed in reference to book-historical perspectives. Among other things, it is discussed whether or not the Firstborn’s special engagement can be said to be a quest to adjust new translations to existing preaching.


Andreassen, B.-O. (2019). The Norwegian political discourse on prohibiting Muslim garments: An analysis of four cases in the period 2008–2018. Changing Societies and Personalities, 3(4), 353–372. https://doi.org/10.15826/csp.2019.3.4.082

Abstract
The public and political debate about Islam and Muslims in Norway have revolved around issues like topics of integration and “radicalisation” and the compatibility of Islam with democracy and “Western values”. Clothing related to Muslims – i.e. Muslim women – such as hijab, niqab, and burqa are in the public and political debate often referred to as examples that Islam is not compatible with “Norwegian” (or “Western”) values. Several political initiatives in order to ban Muslim garments in public places or in school has been rejected with reference to the Norwegian state’s obligations to Human Rights. This article will illustrate how the political debate about Muslim garments have evolved in the period from 2008 to 2018. Four cases will be presented to illustrate this development, and show how each case have been evaluated by the Ministry of Justice in order to decide whether or not the propositions could be a violation of the Norwegian state’s obligation to Human Rights. The fourth case will illustrate how secular arguments, and the strategic understanding of niqab and burqa as “neutrally designed”, paved the way for a national regulation and a ban on clothing covering the face in educational settings.


Hammine, M., Keskitalo, P., & Sarivaara, E. K. (2019). Sámi language teachers’ professional identities explained through narratives about language acquisition. The Australian Journal of Indigenous Education, 49(1), 89–97. https://doi-org.virtual.anu.edu.au/10.1017/jie.2018.22

Abstract
Conducted in northern Finland, this study examines Sámi language teachers’ professional identities through their narratives of language acquisition. We focus on how teachers’ professional identities are shaped by their language acquisition process. The results are based on the narratives of nine North, Inari and Skolt Sámi language teachers. Two aspects of teachers’ narratives were significantly linked to their identities as Sámi language teachers: (1) their backgrounds (indigenous/non-indigenous) and (2) their language acquisition experiences (acquired Sámi language in childhood/adulthood). Indigenous teachers appeared to express their professional identities strongly despite their challenging acquisition experiences and were inclined to work towards the future of Sámi languages. In addition, non-indigenous teachers were willing to further the development of Sámi languages although they are not indigenous, which perhaps contributes towards the future of Sámi languages. Teachers narrated complex thoughts about language acquisition and their professional identity and helped develop indigenous language education in their respective indigenous communities. We recommend that teachers’ in pre-service and service education should prepare and support indigenous language teachers by sharing knowledge about multilingual education practices and coping skills, particularly to help the latter manage varied tasks and heterogeneous contexts. Thus, this research study shows that both teachers’ language acquisition experiences and their current work situations shape their professional identity.


Keskitalo, P. (2019). Place and space in Sámi education. Policy Futures in Education, 17(4), 560–574. https://doi.org/10.1177/1478210319848530

Abstract
This article considers the Sámi understanding of time and place in pedagogical settings. The study is based on research material gathered at Sámi schools and from teaching conducted in the Sámi language. These data were combined to develop a theoretical review of teacher education from a metatheoretical perspective. The research challenges schools’ pedagogical arrangements. Local contents of the study are an important part of the school syllabus, and this article suggests that they are closely tied to school educational arrangements. This study also suggests that, in Northern schools, the Sámi worldview and traditional knowledge should be closely connected to school practices. This means that the Sámi understanding of time and place should receive sufficient emphasis in school curricula. Schools could benefit from the open learning concept, such as modern curricula grounded in teaching that is phenomenon based. This could increase pupils’ motivation and sense of connection to the local area. With mediating structures – connected to multicultural educational contexts – such educational systems could be developed.


Keskitalo, P., & Olsen, T. (2019). Historical and political perspectives on Sámi and inclusive school systems in Norway. In M. C. Beaton, D. B. Hirshberg. G. R. Maxwell, & J. Spratt (Eds.), Including the North: A comparative study of the policies on inclusion and equity in the Circumpolar North (pp. 109–123). Lapland University Press.

Abstract
The aim of this chapter is to introduce Norway’s inclusive education policies for two separate school systems: the national Norwegian and the Sámi systems. This chapter is based on research done in Norway on its national and Sámi schools and their curricula. Norway is an interesting example when it comes to indigenous education and national schools, as state policies on diversity and minority and indigenous issues have been consciously implemented in both school systems. The evolution of these guidelines, as written in education curricula and as implemented in practice, is the core focus of this article. This chapter aims to describe and contemplate the overarching and general tendencies of Sámi schools and issues in Norway, which have received little scholarly attention. We build on and add to the existing research by combining issues related to the national, or mainstream, school systems with issues related to the Sámi school systems. We will present historical and political perspectives on these inclusive school systems. First, we will look at how Sámi subject matters have been introduced into curricula in national schools and kindergartens and what is practically meant by incorporating the Sámi contents. Second, the general educational inclusiveness and cultural inclusiveness practiced in Sámi schools will be examined.


Kortekangas, O., Keskitalo, P., Nyyssönen, J., Kotljarchuk, A., Paksuniemi, M., & Sjögren, D. (2019). Sámi educational history in a comparative international perspective. Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-24112-4

Abstract
This book provides a comprehensive overview of Sámi education in a historical and internationally comparative perspective. Despite the cross-national character of the Sámi population, academic literature on Sámi education has so far been published within the different nation states in the Sámi area, and rarely in English. Exploring indigenous educational history around the world, this collection spans from Asia to Oceania to Sápmi and the Americas. The chapters frame Sámi school history within an international context of indigenous and minority education. In doing so, two narrative threads are established: both traditional history of education, and perspectives on the decolonisation of education. This pioneering book will appeal to students and scholars of Sámi education, as well as indigenous education around the world.


Lindgren, E., Westum, A., Outakoski, H., & Sullivan, K. P. H. (2019). Revising at the leading edge: Shaping ideas or clearing up noise. In E. Lindgren, & K. P. H. Sullivan (Eds.), Observing writing: Insights from keystroke logging and handwriting (pp. 346–365). Brill. https://doi.org/10.1163/9789004392526_017


Olsen, T. A. (2019). Sámi Issues in Norwegian Curricula: A Historical Overview. In O. Kortekangas, P. Keskitalo, J. Nyyssönen, A. Kotljarchuk, M. Paksuniemi, & D. Sjögren (2019). Sámi educational history in a comparative international perspective. Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-24112-4

Abstract
This article offers an overview of the different national curricula for Early Childhood Education, primary school, and secondary school, focusing on Sámi and indigenous issues, and how this has changed over the years. The Norwegian school policy can be seen as having gone from a politics of integration to a politics of recognition. The first is characteristic of the 1974 primary school curriculum, with the idea of the school as an arena for evening out social inequalities. From 1987 on, there is more of a politics of recognition, with its roots in multiculturalism. The current curricula for all levels are, however, more of a return to the politics of integration through their unifying diversity perspective and the claim to include an indigenous perspective for all. In further research and pedagogical development, I argue that there is a need to combine such perspectives and reflections with the growing body of Sámi pedagogy.


Olsen, T. A., & Sollid, H. (2019). Samisk nasjonaldag i skolen: Mellom feiring og markering. Novus Forlag, 2, 113–138. http://ojs.novus.no/index.php/DIN/article/view/1719

Abstract
Den samiske nasjonaldagen 6. februar blei innstifta i 1992 til minne om det første samiske landsmøtet eller folkemøtet i Trondheim i 1917. I dag er dagen flere steder i landet blitt en viktig dag for å lage en markering og ha en anledning til å ta opp et samisk innhold i undervisninga. Vi går i denne artikkelen inn på den samiske nasjonaldagen som ritual på skolen. Teoretisk sett ser vi til ritualperspektiver fra Cathrine Bell, performativitetsteorier fra Judith Butler og artikulasjonsbegrepet fra Greg Johnson. En viktig kontekst er det samiske samfunnets plass i den norske skolen. Samisk innhold i skolen er generelt i en prosess av å bli sterkere betona gjennom læreplaner og økt interesse i praksisfeltet (Olsen & Andreassen 2018). Som en del av dette er nasjonaldagen blitt stadig viktigere. Vi ser på hvordan dagen blir markert eller feira i to ulike skoler, på ulike læringsressursers behandling av den samiske nasjonaldagen, og setter dette i en større sammenheng av skolens behandling av samiske og urfolksrelaterte tema i undervisninga.


Rahko-Ravantti, I. R. M., & Keskitalo, P. (2019). Introduction to Sámi education. In M. Paksuniemi, & P. Keskitalo (Eds.), Introduction to the Finnish educational system (pp. 67–79). Brill. https://doi.org/10.1163/9789004394278_005

Abstract
The aim of the chapter is to analyse the main characteristics of Sámi education, such as issues experienced by teachers and students on the day to day basis, and to illustrate the understanding of Sámi educational experience on the basis of the interaction between Sámi youths and teachers. It is found that the teaching approach that is inspired by the cultural aspects is likely to improve the Sámi education. Moreover, the individual need of native peoples’ education has grabbed the attention with the increased awareness about educational sovereignty. Therefore, due to its relevance nature, it ahs become more important to develop education for native people than ever as Sámi language is found to be seriously at risk of extinction. The teaching concerning Sámi language and Sámi-speaking education must be designed after considering pedagogical, culturally sensitive solutions while planning, realising, and executing.


Sarivaara, E. K., & Keskitalo, P. (2019). Sámi language for all: Transformed futures through mediative education. In E. A. McKinley, & L. T. Smith (Eds.), Handbook of Indigenous education (pp. 467–482). Springer Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-3899-0

Abstract
This chapter deals with the mediative role of Sámi education in Sámi language revitalization. Education, in the form of mediative structures, provides the tools necessary to effect language revitalization to counter the legacy of assimilation, which has deleteriously affected Sámi people on most social measures. Mediative education is significant because it creates transformation in Indigenous communities, helping arbitration, peacemaking, resolution, and negotiation practices to flourish. This chapter focuses on mediative contexts and their instances, as well as on the implementation of mediating pedagogy in the field of Sámi education research. The chapter is theoretically constructed on the authors’ respective research in Sámi education, assimilation and revitalization; it turns on the premise that language revitalization builds social harmony in a postcolonial situation, and that there are certain key tasks that need to be fulfilled to recover endangered languages. The revitalization process of the Sámi languages and moreover strengthening language domains are core aims in Sámi education in Northern Europe. Crucially, attempts to nurture these languages draw on broader practices of education and human rights.


Sollid, H. (2019). Linguistic diversity as language policy in the classroom. Målbryting, 10, 1–21. https://doi.org/10.7557/17.4807

Abstract
The main goal of Norwegian language policy is to strengthen Norwegian as the primary language in all parts of society, and for using Norwegian also in situations where English might be preferred. At the same time, there is a need for competence in English and other foreign languages, and to strengthen language diversity in a wider sense. The educational system implements this language policy, and this article focuses on how one school adapts and implements the policy. Based on ethnographic data for a classroom in Tromsø, Northern Norway, the analysis shows that the school has institutionalised parts of the language diversity policy, but that it is more difficult to find room for the students’ linguistic experiences beyond the learning aims in the curriculum.


Sollid, H., & Olsen, T. A. (2019). Indigenising education: Scales, interfaces and acts of citizenship in Sápmi. Junctures: The Journal for Thematic Dialogue, 20, 26–42. https://doi.org/10.34074/junc.20029

Abstract
As Indigenous people reclaim their position after centuries of oppression, the tensions between Indigenous needs and national demands surface. This is also the case of the Indigenous Sámi in Norway. After a long period of colonisation, recognition of the indigenous Sámi people and their language and culture is replacing the politics of erasure. In this process, the educational system is the institution where this new direction can reach the farthest. Rather than seeing Indigenous education as static endpoint in opposition towards mainstream education, we theorise that indigenising education is better understood as a process and as a continuum where citizens with different subject positions engage and interact in a cultural interface. The theorising is based on a case study from Gáivuotna-Kåfjord-Kaivuono on the Norwegian side of Sápmi.


Sullivan, K. P. H., Belancic, K., Lindgren, E., Outakoski, H., & Vinka, M. (2019). The global in the local: Young multilingual language learners write in North Sámi (Finland, Norway, Sweden). In A. Sherris, & J. K. Peyton (Eds.), Teaching writing to children in Indigenous languages (pp. 235–253). Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781351049672-13

Abstract
Contemporary globalization trends might be a threat to Indigenous language revitalization efforts, or might act as catalysts that stimulate interest in learning and writing in Indigenous languages. This chapter presents a snapshot case study of young multilingual writers of North Sámi and considers the interaction of supercomplexity and the super dimensions of Sápmi on North Sámi literacy. Using illustrations taken from 126 young writers’ narratives texts collected from 12 schools across the North Sámi speaking area of Sápmi in Finland, Norway, and Sweden, this chapter discusses how these young writers express in written North Sámi what they do in their lives, their understandings of their identities, and how these reflect the global and the local dimensions that they engage in on a daily basis. Based on our analysis, together with earlier research, we argue that young writers have the literacy skills necessary for meaning making, but that more possibilities for exposure to North Sámi are required, coupled with structural support from policy makers, society generally, and education opportunities, to raise the linguistics competencies for more nuanced North Sámi writing.


Zmyvalova, E., & Outakoski, H. (2019). The development of Sámi children’s right to learn Sámi in the Russian school context. In O. Kortekangas, P. Keskitalo, J. Nyyssönen, A. Kotljarchuk, M. Paksuniemi, & D. Sjögren (Eds.), Sámi educational history in a comparative international perspective (pp. 105–123). Palgrave Macmillan. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-24112-4_7

Abstract
In this chapter, we show how the provisions of international law concerning Indigenous children’s right to learn their mother tongue in school have evolved over time and how the provisions of the Russian national legislation comply with international law. In the light of this framework, we present the historic trajectory of Sámi education at the Lovozero School, from the end of the 1800s to the organizational and attitudinal breaking point experienced during the school year of 2016–2017. Although the Russian legislation has come to contain the elements of the right in focus, we claim that the realization of this right has been, and still is, problematic. A further analysis indicates a recent negative change of the curricular contents, and of the interest of the Sámi learners to attend the Sámi language lessons. This change coincides with a shift from language-oriented teaching into history and culture-oriented program at the school, as well as with negative changes in the speaker demography.

 

2018 Publications

 

Andreassen, B-O., & Olsen, T.A. (2018). Samisk innhold i skolen—kunnskap, rettigheter og mangfoldskompetanse. In E. Schjetne & T-A. Skrefsrud (Eds.), Å være lærer i en mangfoldig skole: Kulturelt og religiøst mangfold, profesjonsverdier og verdigrunnlag (pp. 130–146). Gyldendal Akademisk


Andreassen, B-O., & Olsen, T.A. (2018). ‘Urfolk’ og ‘mangfold’ i skolens læreplaner. FLEKS: Scandinavian Journal of Intercultural Theory and Practice5(1). https://doi.org/10.7577/fleks.2248 

Abstract
Since 1974, the curriculum for the Norwegian school has had a overarching part that puts the school and its content into a bigger social and political context. As such, this part of the curriculum is a highly political and ideological text that expresses the state’s purpose and interest related to the school. This article looks into how indigenous people, minorities and diversity is represented in the general part of the curriculum from 1974 to 2017. The changing curricula show changes in the official politics and views on diversity. Through an analysis of the curricula we explore which terms and concepts that are used in the description of people and groups in Norwegian society. We focus primarily on the representation of the Sami, who move from being people in “mixed language districts” with limited rights, via being an “ethnic minority”, to being an indigenous people with a set of rights. Further, we look into how the diverse society is represented, from the use of “alien workers”, via “immigrants”, to just “diversity”. We argue that the concepts or strategies of politics of recognition and politics of integration respectively can be used to describe the curricula. Norway’s educational policy towards minorities and indigenous people seems to exist between these two. In the end, this leave diversity competence as an important concept in the future Norwegian school.


Fogarty, W., Bulloch, H., McDonnell, S., & Davis, M. (2018). Deficit discourse and Indigenous health: How narrative framings of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people are reproduced in policy. The Lowitja Institute. https://www.lowitja.org.au/content/Document/Lowitja-Publishing/deficit-discourse.pdf

Abstract
This report is the first in a two-part series examining deficit discourse, and responses to it, in the field of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health. Understanding how deficit discourses are produced and reproduced is essential to challenging them. Thus, this report examines various aspects of deficit discourse in policy, but in particular considers deficit metrics: the ways in which Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians are homogenised and statistically compared to non-Indigenous Australians. We consider the complex political roles such statistics play and how they can contribute to a narrative of deficiency. We also detail the active efforts (including in government policy) that are being undertaken to counter negative constructions.


Fogarty, W., Lovell, M., Lagenberg, J., & Heron, M-J. (2018). Deficit discourse and strengths-based approaches: Changing the narrative of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health and wellbeing. The Lowitja Institute. https://www.lowitja.org.au/content/Document/Lowitja-Publishing/deficit-discourse-strengths-based.pdf

Abstract
This report is the second in a two-part series examining deficit discourse, and responses to it, in the field of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health. This report builds on Deficit Discourse and Indigenous Health by reviewing and analysing a growing body of work from Australia and overseas that proposes ways to displace deficit discourse in health, or that provides examples of attempts to do so. The most widely accepted approaches to achieving this come under the umbrella term ‘strengths-based’, which seek to move away from the traditional problem-based paradigm and offer a different language and set of solutions to overcoming an issue. It is on these approaches that we focus in this report.


Fogarty, W., Riddle, S., Lovell, M., & Wilson, B. (2018). Indigenous education and literacy policy in Australia: Bringing learning back to the debate. The Australian Journal of Indigenous Education, 47(2), 185–197. http://dx.doi.org.virtual.anu.edu.au/10.1017/jie.2017.18

Abstract
In a policy landscape dominated by forces that seek to continually reshape education according to market logics, there are particular impacts on the seemingly intractable crisis of Indigenous education policy making. Entrenched discourses of deficit result in education policy continually being ‘done to’ communities, with little heed paid to the effects of such efforts on the learning opportunities available to young Indigenous learners, particularly those living in remote communities. This paper examines the contemporary network of policy levers that come to shape how literacy policy is framed for Indigenous Australians through narratives of failure and crisis. In doing so, we ask what learning is made (im)possible and what are some of the ‘flattening’ effects on literacy curriculum and pedagogy as a result? Further, this paper seeks to open up the conversation around what learning is possible when the policy landscape is unflattened, when policy is ‘done with’ communities, and when pedagogical practices are opened up, rather than closed down.


Gjerpe, K. (2018). From indigenous education to indigenising mainstream education. Scandinavian Journal of Intercultural Theory and Practice, 5(1), 1–18. https://doi.org/10.7577/fleks.2190

Abstract
The purpose with this article is to discuss the concept of “indigenous education” in Norway and Aotearoa New Zealand. The point of departure is that both states face a common challenge with regard to indigenous education: Valuable resources are used on indigenous schools, but the majority of indigenous students attend mainstream schools. The article claims that the emphasis on indigenous schools has been necessary and important as part of the indigenous political movement. Nevertheless, in order to achieve culturally appropriate education for all indigenous pupils, this article argues that there is a need to indigenise mainstream education.


Guenther, J., & Fogarty, W. (2018). Examining remote Australian First Nations boarding through capital theory lenses. Critical Studies in Education, 1–17. https://doi.org/10.1080/17508487.2018.1543201

Abstract
In Australia, boarding schools and residential facilities for remote Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (First Nations) students have long been part of the educational landscape. Policy settings are paying considerable attention to boarding schools and residential colleges as secondary schooling options for First Nations students, particularly for those from remote areas. Further, First Nations education is seeing increased investment in scholarship programmes, transition support services and establishment of national boarding standards. There is an emerging body of qualitative evidence about the experiences and outcomes of boarding for remote First Nations students. However, in Australia there are no publicly available evaluations showing quantitative impacts of boarding.

In this paper, the authors critically examine boarding using three capital theory lenses: social/cultural capital (based on Bourdieu), human capital (based on Becker), and identity capital (based on Erikson). Using these lenses we intend to go beyond an understanding of impact on individuals towards a more nuanced consideration of the social, cultural, health and well-being consequences of pursuing boarding as strategic policy for First Nations students in Australia.


Ninkova, V. (2018). Education for the Namibian Juǀ’hoansi—At What Cost? Neos: A Publication of the Anthropology of Children and Youth Interest Group, 10(2), 6–8. http://acyig.americananthro.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/NEOS-October-2018.pdf

Abstract
During colonialism, boarding schools became the most successful tool for the assimilation of indigenous peoples and the extermination of their cultures and languages. Harrowing memories of physical, sexual, and psychological abuse permeate the accounts of boarding school survivors across the Americas, Scandinavia, and Australia (Carroll 2009; Dawson 2012; Lind Meløy 1980). The international recognition of indigenous peoples’ rights has helped expose the extent of the violence inflicted upon indigenous communities, and some governments and religious bodies have assumed responsibility for their wrongdoings. While the road ahead is long, the first steps towards reconciliation and decolonization have been taken. The boarding school systems are now thought of as a shameful chapter of the past. Across southern Africa, however, a similar story of marginalization and abuse is currently unfolding. This paper focuses on a group of San former hunter-gatherers—the Jul’hoansi of central eastern Namibia—and their experiences in boarding schools. It is based on data collected through long-term ethnographic work with communities and schools since 2008.


Olsen, T. A. (2018). This word is (not?) very exciting: Considering intersectionality in Indigenous Studies. Nordic Journal of Feminist and Gender Research26(3), 182–196. https://doi.org/10.1080/08038740.2018.1493534

Abstract
Gender and intersectional approaches can provide important insights and reflections for indigenous studies. Issues related to indigenous people and communities are broad and complex. Doing research within indigenous studies has to consist of more than simply discussing indigenous identity. I argue that intersectional approaches of varying kinds provide an opportunity to understand several aspects of identity and a diverse set of issues relevant to indigenous communities. Using intersectional approaches enables one to maintain a critical focus on power. In this article, I describe indigenous studies and intersectionality separately, then move on to a discussion of how intersectionality and gender perspectives can be used within indigenous studies. The starting point for intersectional approaches as well as for indigenous studies is the margins rather than the centre. The focus of the article is on methodology, which is based on the reading of literature from indigenous methodologies, gender studies, and intersectionality. A key concept is the cultural interface, which points towards the existence of plural subject positions both for individuals and within a community.

 

2017 Publications

 

Andreassen, B.-O., & Olsen, T. A. (2017). Hva skal vi med samisk innhold i læreplanene for religionsfagene? In M. von der Lippe & S. Undheim (Eds.), Religion i skolen: didaktiske perspektiver på religions- og livssynsfaget (pp. 70–86). Universitetsforlaget.

Abstract
Alle læreplaner for skolefagene i den norske skolen skal inneholde kompetansemål som omhandler samisk språk og kultur. I denne artikkelen gjør vi en analyse av det samiske innholdet i læreplanen for Kristendom, religion, livssyn og etikk (KRLE) (fra 2015) i grunnskolen og Religion og etikk (fra 2006) i videregående opplæring. På bakgrunn av denne analysen drøfter vi avslutningsvis hvordan arbeid med det samiske innholdet både utfordrer og bidrar med perspektiver i religionsundervisningen. Vi argumenterer derfor for at det samiske innholdet i religionsfagene kan bidra med viktige perspektiver i religionsfaget som et kultur- og dannelsesfag i skolen.


Olsen, T. A. (2017). Colonial conflicts: Absence, inclusion and indigenization in textbook presentations of indigenous peoples. In J. R. Lewis, B.-O. Andreassen, & S. A. Thobro (Eds.), Textbook violence (pp. 71–86). Equinox Publishing.

Abstract
Indigenous peoples and historical events related to indigenous peoples always have a conflict dimension. Issues of colonization, exploitation, and culture crashes are all at hand in societies where indigenous peoples are a part. You do not need a very broad definition of violence or conflict to understand these as expressions of violence. It may be structural violence, pointing towards discrimination, and it may be indirect or direct violence, through cases of forced conversion, forced relocation, or even genocide. Textbook authors need to relate to these conflicts. The case used to discuss the more general topic in this article is the representation of conflicts related to the indigenous Sámis of Norway. Is this an issue of colonization?  When the Danish-Norwegian state wanted to secure the borders in the beginning of the 18th century, Christian missionaries sent to the Sámis were an important factor. This led to the Christianization of the Sámi. In the middle of the 19th century this had its backdrop through the rebellion in the Sámi village of Kautokeino where people were killed. In the article I do an analysis of the textbook presentations of these events as a starting point for a discussion of textbook presentations of colonization and conflicts related to states and indigenous peoples. The assumption made is that textbooks tend to downplay the conflict dimensions of the relationship between states and indigenous peoples. There are three main approaches to the representation of indigenous studies, absence, inclusion, and indigenization.


Olsen, T. A. (2017). Privilege, decentring, and the challenge of being (non-)Indigenous in the study of Indigenous issues. The Australian Journal of Indigenous Education, 47(2), 206–215. https://doi.org/10.1017/jie.2017.16

Abstract
There are acceptable ways of studying Indigenous issues as a non-Indigenous scholar. Still, the role and identity of the scholar is important and debated within the study of Indigenous issues. The purpose of this article is to accept, but explore the premise of a distinction between Indigenous and non-Indigenous. I claim the possibility of taking a decentred space within Indigenous studies and move towards a methodological and theoretical foundation that is informed by scholars with different stances and backgrounds. A key approach is the intersectional approach to privilege. Neither privilege/oppression, Indigenous/non-Indigenous, nor insider/outsider are binary relations. From Indigenous methodologies such as kaupapa Māori, I emphasise, in particular, the local starting point, arguing that this is the way to transfer relevant issues to a bigger context.


Olsen, T. A., & Andreassen, B.-O. (2017). Indigenous issues in early childhood education curricula in Norway and Aotearoa/New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Educational Studies, 52(2), 255–270. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40841-017-0085-0

Abstract
Early childhood education (ECE) has to an increasing extent become an integrated part of the education system in some countries, with national ECE curricula. Being states with indigenous people, Norway and Aotearoa/New Zealand have faced challenges and possibilities regarding how to deal with both past and present during the curricular processes. It is striking and telling that when Aotearoa/New Zealand had its first national curriculum for ECE 1996, it was based on Māori thinking and concepts. We explore how indigenous issues are dealt with in ECE curricula in the two countries, and argue that the respective curricula are expressions of two different kinds of indigenization. Still, the implementation challenge leaves the risk for the continuing silencing and Othering of the indigenous.


Olsen, T. A., Sollid, H., & Johansen, A. M. (2017). Kunnskap om samiske forhold som integrert del av lærerutdanningene. Acta Didactica Norge, 11(2), 1–15. https://doi.org/10.5617/adno.4353

Abstract
If you study to become a teacher in Norway, you are obliged to learn to maintain the rights of Sámi children and youth, as well as to provide education on Sámi issues for all pupils. This is expressed in the national regulations for the teacher education programs. What does this mean for teacher education programs? In this article, we explore this issue by examining the implications of the curriculum with regard to the role of Sámi and indigenous issues in the general educational system. We present the historical and legal basis for the integration of this topic in teacher education. However, a brief overview of the status of knowledge in this field shows that the political support of Sámi interests has been, and still is difficult to implement in education in general, and in teacher education in particular. Next, we summarize what the national curriculum for teacher education actually says about Sámi issues. We point to an explicit mainstreaming dimension where the curriculum goals are obligatory for all teacher students, not only for future teachers for Sámi students in Sámi schools. These guidelines are further connected to a reflexive practice around the place of Sámi and indigenous issues in education, and we argue that both the development of intercultural competence and citizenship education are relevant overarching goals in this context. Finally, we propose a national competence strategy on the road towards developing a Norwegian teacher education that takes Sámi isses and perspectives seriously.