Davvisámegiela –nláhkai ~ –nládje -suffiksála ii-finihtta vearbaráhkadusat
Jussi Ylikoski (Oulu universitehta)
Viečča artihkkala dás (pdf).
The North Saami non-finite in –nláhkai ~ –nládje
The article is a description of a previously underdescribed non-finite verb form in North Saami. From a diachronic point of view, the formation in –nláhkai ~ -nládje consists of a shortened variant of the verbal noun followed by the adverb or postposition láhkai ~ ládje ’in the manner of’. However, with reference to the morphological, syntactic and semantic properties of -nláhkai ~ -nládje it is asserted that a new, independent non-finite has branched away from an otherwise noun-like use of the verbal noun.
Based on extensive data from the contemporary literary North Saami, it is maintained that the non-finite in -nláhkai ~ -nládje is used in three distinct functions: Most commonly, it is used in the function labeled «predicative» in the article, i.e. in clauses like Filbma lea oastinláhkai DVD-skearrun [film be.3SG buy.nláhkai DVD-disc.ESS] ’the film can be bought («is buyable») in DVD’ or Son bajidii niibbi čuggenládje [s/he raise.PAST.3SG knife.ACC stab. nládje] ’s/he raised the knife ready to stab’ where the non-finite appears to describe the action denoted by the verb as having a modal meaning of possibility, although other dynamic modal interpretations are also possible. Secondly, the non-finite may be used as an adverbial modifier of manner, e.g. Govvadáidda oahpahuvvo stoahkanláhkai [visual.arts teach.PASS.3SG play.nláhkai] ’the visual arts are taught through playing’. Thirdly, one can occasionally come across sentences where the non-finite in -nláhkai ~ -nládje is used as a participle-like modifier of a noun, e.g. jahkásaččat juohkinláhkai bálkkášupmi [yearly give.away.nláhkai prize] ’a prize that is awarded every year’.